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Chapter 13.2 - Chapter 13.2 Karst Topography and Landscapes...

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Chapter 13.2 Karst Topography and Landscapes I.a. Karst topography : entire landscapes composed of limestone I.a. Limestone is abundant on Earth and makes up many landscapes--> chemical weathering--> landscapes of pitted, bumpy surface topography, poor surface drainage, and well-developed solution channels (dissolved openings) underground or underground caverns I.a. Formation of Karst I.a.i. Conditions for formation of limestone landscapes: I.a.i.1. Limestone formation must contain 80% or more calcium carbonate for dissolution processes to proceed effectively I.a.i.1. Complex patterns of joints needed for water to form routes to subsurface drainage channels I.a.i.1. Aerated (containing air) zone between ground surface and water table I.a.i.1. Vegetation cover to supply varying amounts of organic acids that enhance dissolution processes I.a.i. Role of climate in providing conditions for karst processes is under debate but rainfall does seem to be important I.a.i.1. Karst processes tend to occur in arid regions (rare in the Arctic and Antarctic regions b/c water is generally frozen) I.a. Lands Covered with Sinkholes I.a.i. Sinkholes (doline) : circular depressions formed by weathering of limestone landscapes (ex. sinkholes formed b/c pumping from municipal wells lowered water tables--> collapse into underground solution caves) I.a.i. Collapse Sinkhole : forms when a solution sinkhole collapses through the roof of an underground cavern I.a.i.
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