Chapter 14.1

Chapter 14.1 - Chapter 14.1 Fluvial Processes and Landforms...

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Chapter 14.1 Fluvial Processes and Landforms I.a. Mass of water above base level in a stream has potential energy, becomes kinetic energy as water flows downslope or downstream under influence of gravity I.a.i. Rate of this conversion depends on steepness of the stream channel and volume of water involved I.a. Stream Discharge I.a.i. Dependent on stream channel width, depth, and velocity of flow, calculated by multiplying these three variables for specific cross section of channel I.a.i.1. Q = wdv I.a.i.1.a. Q=discharge, w=channel width, d=channel depth, and v=stream velocity, expressed in cubic meters per second (m 3 /s) or cubic ft. per second (cfs) I.a.i. As Q increases in downstream direction with inflow from tributaries, other variables must increase I.a.i.1. Greater discharge increases the velocity--> increase in capacity of river to transport sediment as flood progresses--> enhanced ability to scour materials from its bed--> clearing and excavation of alluvium I.a. Exotic Streams I.a.i. Discharge increases in downstream direction in most river basins in human regions, but may not always be the case if a stream originates in a humid region and flows through an arid region I.a.i.1. Exotic Stream : when high potential evapotranspiration rates in arid regions causes discharge to decrease with distance downstream (ex. Nile River loses water because of evaporation and withdrawal for agriculture, Colorado River) I.a. Stream Erosion and Transportation I.a.i. Hydraulic action : work of flowing water alone that causes
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2012 for the course 460 476 taught by Professor Adamo during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 14.1 - Chapter 14.1 Fluvial Processes and Landforms...

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