Lecture 3- Hardware

Lecture 3- Hardware - Chapter 3 - Hardware Last Week! –...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 - Hardware Last Week! – Chapter 2 – Internet and WWW url—gmu.edu Something tangible and physica l. It can be seen, touched and held . Hardware Data Representation inside the CPU • Computers process trillion dollar business transactions, email, stream video and audio from servers, print pictures from digital cameras…… YET ! Ultimately …… • All content that is processed or handled by a computer system is just ….. 1 or !! Electrical currents ( digital computer system ) can carry different voltages to represent a 1 or 0) • Each or 1 is known as bit ( Bi nary Digi t ) • But! We have 26 alpha char, numbers, punctuation, special char • 8 bits are grouped together and become 1 byte . • 1 byte represents 1 character Example: A BYTE (8 bits) representing the letter “A” This is “A” not “a” because “a” is a different bit pattern . Data Representation inside the CPU “off” “on” 8 bits (1 byte) can represent 256 different characters: Capacity of 1 Byte 2 = 256 8 there are 8 bits per byte each bit has 2 possible values Issue… What if you buy a software program that did not recognize this byte as “A”? 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 An Industry Standard was created in 1963 —called ACSII — to permit data transfer and sharing between computers and software of different manufacturers Issue… What if you buy a software program that did not recognize this byte as “A”? 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 An Industry Standard was created in 1963 —called ACSII — to permit data transfer and sharing between computers and software of different manufacturers ASCII Character Set A merican S tandard C ode for I nformation I nterchange Uses 7-bit byte How does this equal the letter A? Unicode-established to allow text and symbols from ALL of the major writing systems of the WORLD Uses two bytes ( 16 bits ) for each character representation Input-Process-Output - IPO Model Storage Disk, jump drive, CD, etc IPO model without storage IPO model with storage I nput P rocess Run programs using raw data O utput Information Raw Data Input Process Output Information Raw Data Feedback Input Process Output Information Raw Data IPO Model with Feedback Storage Feedback in Action Hardware Devices that allow us to enter, store, process data … and… display output. Input keyboard mouse Output monitor printer Storage primary secondary Motherboard Processor Bus BIOS Power Supply Communication Devices Types: DIGITAL (bits—0,1) ANALOG ( carries sounds like telephone lines Styles: desk top laptop mainframe super computers Hardware Types and Styles Bits, Bytes, and Hertz – speed of a computer’s processor (unit of frequency describing the number of electrical cycles that occur in a second) Hertz - Cycles per second Kilohertz (Khz) Megahertz (Mhz) Gigahertz (Ghz) bps - bits per second Kilobits (Kbps) Megabits (Mbps) Gigabits (Gbps) Byte Kilobyte (KB) = 2^10 Bytes = 1,024 Bytes Megabyte (MB) = 2^20 Bytes = 1,024 KB Gigabyte (GB) = 2^30 Bytes = 1,024...
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2012 for the course IT 108, 103, taught by Professor Bruno during the Spring '11 term at George Mason.

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Lecture 3- Hardware - Chapter 3 - Hardware Last Week! –...

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