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Physiology notes till end of year

Physiology notes till end of year - Cardiac physiology I...

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Cardiac physiology I. Functions of cardiovascular system A. pump-> pressure gradients 1. bulk flow B. transport system 1. blood as a transport medium II Basic Anatomy A. circuits (dual pump) 1. pulmonary circulation (right) 2. systemic circulation (left) B. chambers 1. right atrium 2. right ventricle 3. left atrium 4. left ventricle 5. valves a. tricuspid
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b. pulmonary semi-lunar c. bicuspid d. aortic semi-lunar e. chordae tendinea C. walls of the heart 1. endocardium 2. myocardium a. intercalated discs 1. gap junctions 2. desmosones b. autorhythmic cells (1%) 1. conducting system of heart c. contractile cells (99%) 1. mitochondria 2. myoglobin
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3. epicardium 4. pericardial sac II electrical activity of the heart A. autorhythmic cells 1. pacemaker activity a. pacemaker potential 2. location of autorhythmic cells a. sinoatrial node b. atrioventricular node c. Bundle of His d. Purkinje fibers 3. SA as pacemaker 4.problems a. SA failure 1. latent pacemakers b. heart block c. ectopic focus
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B. coordination of spread of cardiac excitation 1. terms 1. diastole 2. systole 2. atrial excitation 3. ventricle excitation 4. fibrillation C. Action potential in contractile cardiac cells 1. rising phase 2. plateau phase 3. falling phase 4. mechanism of contraction
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5. refractory period D. Mechanical events of the cardiac cycle 1. systole 2. diastole 3. stroke volume 4. heart rate 5. cardiac output 6. bradycardia 7. tachycardia E. heart sounds 1. lub 2. dub 3. murmurs 4. stenotic valve
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5. insufficient valve F. control mechanisms 1. autorhythmic cells 2 parasympathetic ns a. sa node b. contractile cells 3. sympathetic ns a. sa node b. contractile cells G. high blood pressure H. ischemic heart disease 1.angina pectoris 2. atherosclerotic coronary artery disease I cholesterol 1. hdl
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2. ldl Appendix B Storage, replication and expression of genetic information I introduction to genetics A. proteins review 1. primary structure a. amino acids 2. general functions B. definitions 1. gene 2. genome C. DNA 1. functions 2. structure
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3. nitrogenous bases a. adenine b. guanine c. cytosine d. thymine 4. double helix 5. complementary base pairing 6. triplet code 7. replication II RNA A. structure B. function 1. types
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C. transcription 1. codons III Protein synthesis A. translation 1. ribosome assembly 2. role of tRNA a. anticodons 3. protein assembly Blood vessels I Generalities A. organization B functions C. systemic flow
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D reconditioning organs E. regulation of flow F. general anatomy of vessels 1. endothelial cells (tunica interna) a. functions 2. smooth muscle layer (tunica media) 3. connective tissue (tunica externa) D. flow rate 1. pressure gradient
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