Lesson21 - Carbocation Intermediates Carbocations are...

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Carbocation Intermediates Carbocations are common intermediates in organic chemistry. We have encountered carbocations in [S N 1] substitution and [E1] elimination. Although carbocations are never present in very high concentrations (because they are unstable and highly reactive), they do open up a reaction pathway through which important chemistry ensues. C •6-electron species •trigonal planar geometry •sp 2 hybridized •empty p orbital on carbon carbocation Carbocations have a carbon- centered empty p-orbital
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Stability of Carbocation Intermediates Certain carbocations are more easily formed than others. Only if the carbocation can be formed easily does it open a viable pathway. We thus need to understand how carbocation stability relates to structure, and how this structure relates to reactivity. A simple rule predicts stability for carbocations: the more nonhydrogen substituents attached to a carbocation, the greater is its stability. Increasing stability
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π -type σ a Resonance Interaction Stabilizes Carbocations http://www.chemtube3d.com/index.html Why are substituted carbocations more stable than unsubstituted carbocations? The carbocation is a 6-electron species; any atom (or bond) that supplies this electron deficient carbon with electron density increases its stability. Electrons in bonds that are directly attached to the carbocation do not offer any help because the filled and empty orbitals are perpendicular and incapable of overlapping. However, electrons in bonds that are one atom away from the carbocation center are able to donate some of their electron density through a σ a ( π -type) interaction. C
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Lesson21 - Carbocation Intermediates Carbocations are...

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