Concept Comparison and Analysis across Theories

Concept Comparison and Analysis across Theories - Concept...

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Concept Comparison and Analysis across Theories The process of choosing a nursing model or theory to guide one's clinical practice, curriculum development or theoretical framework for research can be facilitated by analysis of and comparison of existing theories. The concept of care is a core concept common to many nursing theories. Caring is considered by many as one central feature within the metaparadigm concept of nursing knowledge and practices (Watson & Smith, 2002, p. 456). The topic of this paper is to selects a core concept that is common to several nursing theories and then to compare and analyze the concept among several theories. Specifically, this paper compares four theoretical understandings of the core concept caring, including Madeleine Leininger's Theory of the Culture Care Diversity and Universality, Jean Watson's Theory of Philosophy and Science of Caring, Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Model, and Dorothy Johnson's Behavioral Systems Model. Jean Watson's theory of Philosophy and Science of Caring will be discussed further. Madeleine Leininger's Theory of the Culture Care Diversity and Universality is based on transcultural nursing, whose goal is to provide care measures that are balanced with cultural values, beliefs, and practices. Leninger suggests that "care is the essence of nursing and culturally based care can be predicted to enable health and well-being for humans of diverse cultures" (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, p. 178). This model consists of 3 levels that provide a base of knowledge for delivering cultural care. The definition of caring for Leininger is linked to the proposed modes of nursing action: 1. Cultural care preservation refers to nursing care activities that help people maintain or preserve health, recover from illness, or face death. 2. Cultural care accommodation refers to those nursing care activities that aid people to adapt to or negotiate for a beneficial health outcome. 3. Cultural care re-patterning refers to those nursing care activities that help a client restructure or change lifestyles while respecting the client's cultural values. (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005, p. 179). In comparison, Jean Watson's Theory of Philosophy and Science of Caring proposes 10 nursing carative factors. Care is about forming humanistic-altruistic value system. It is instilling faith- hope. Care is about cultivating sensitivity to self and others. It is developing helping-trust relationship. It is promoting expression of feelings. It is using problem-solving for decision making and promoting teaching-learning. Care is promoting supportive environment and assisting with gratification of human needs. It allows for existential-phenomenological forces of wellness. In this theory, Watson's caring model is action driven. Caring can be demonstrated and practiced.
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2012 for the course SCIENCE FIN 442 taught by Professor Husseinsoudi during the Fall '09 term at German University in Cairo.

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Concept Comparison and Analysis across Theories - Concept...

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