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Lec11_2011BILD3

Lec11_2011BILD3 - Lec 11 Organismal Diversity II I Overview...

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Lec 11: Organismal Diversity II I. Overview II. Eukarya (fungi) III. Eukarya (invertebrates) IV. Eukarya (vertebrates)
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I. Overview
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Evolutionary origins of animals and fungi Molecular systematics provides solid support for animals and fungi sharing a common ancestor with other opistokonts. Mulitcellularity appears to have independently evolved in lineages leading to animals and fungi.
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II. Eukarya (fungi) 100,000 described species; actual diversity likely much higher Unicellular (yeasts and filamentous forms) and multicellular Spores disperse far and wide. Absorptive, heterotrophs that break down organic matter (including cellulose and lignin) Many parasites (some pathogenic) and mutualists Oldest fossils from 460 mya; group likely much older
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Multicellular fungi are primarily composed of hyphae (sum = mycelium) Fungal cell walls contain chitin , which is a nitrogen- rich poly- saccharide.
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Major fungal lineages Zygomycetes (about 1000 species) - molds that grow on breads and fruit - others parasitic or commensal symbionts of animals Glomeromycetes (160 species) - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
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Major fungal lineages Ascomycetes (about 65,000 species) - marine, terrestrial and aquatic species - diverse habits: parasites partners in lichens free-living ectomycorrhizal endophytic
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Major fungal lineages Basidiomycetes (30,000 species) - shelf fungus, mushrooms, puff balls - some ectomycorrhizal; others important plant pests (rusts and smuts) - basidomycetes are important decomposers of wood; capable of breaking down lignin (a complex polymer)
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Lichens are symbiotic associations between a photoautotroph (either green algae or cyanobacteria) and a fungus (usually an ascomycete).
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