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Unformatted text preview: EEL 5544 Lecture 2 EEL 5544 Lecture 2 EX Motivation problem from Lecture 1A: An elementary school is offering 3 language classes: one in Spanish ( S ), one in French ( F ), and one in German ( G ). These classes are open to any of the 100 students in the school ( Ω ). There are 28 students in the S , 26 in F , and 16 in G . There are 12 students that are in both S and F , 4 that are in both S and G , and 6 that are in both F and G . (Note that being in “both S and G ” does not exclude that some of those students could also be in French.) In addition, there are 2 students taking all 3 classes. EEL 5544 L21 1. If a student is chosen randomly, what is the probability that he or she is not in any of these classes? Hint: Find the number of students that are not in any of these classes and divide by the total number of students. EEL 5544 L22 EEL 5544 L23 2. If a student is chosen randomly, what is the probability that he or she is taking exactly one language class? Hint: Find the number of students that are in exactly one language class and divide by the total number of students. EEL 5544 L24 Probability as a Measure of Frequency of Occurrence Probability as a Measure of Frequency of Occurrence • Consider a random experiment that has K possible outcomes, K < ∞ Probability as a Measure of Frequency of Occurrence • Consider a random experiment that has K possible outcomes, K < ∞ • Let N k ( n ) = the number of times the outcome is k Probability as a Measure of Frequency of Occurrence • Consider a random experiment that has K possible outcomes, K < ∞ • Let N k ( n ) = the number of times the outcome is k • Then we can tabulate N k ( n ) for various values of k and n Probability as a Measure of Frequency of Occurrence • Consider a random experiment that has K possible outcomes, K < ∞ • Let N k ( n ) = the number of times the outcome is k • Then we can tabulate N k ( n ) for various values of k and n • We can reduce the dependence on n by dividing N ( k ) by n to find out “how often did k occur”. EEL 5544 L25 The relative frequency The relative frequency of outcome k of a random experiment is f k ( n ) = N k ( n ) n . The relative frequency of outcome k of a random experiment is f k ( n ) = N k ( n ) n . • Observation: In our previous experiments, as n gets large, f k ( n ) converges to some constant value. EEL 5544 L26 An experiment possesses statistical regularity An experiment possesses statistical regularity if lim n → ∞ f k ( n ) = p k (a constant) , ∀ k . An experiment possesses statistical regularity if lim n → ∞ f k ( n ) = p k (a constant) , ∀ k . For experiments with statistical regularity as defined above, p k is called the probability of outcome k ....
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2012 for the course ECC 101 taught by Professor Horton during the Spring '09 term at Punjab Engineering College.
 Spring '09
 HORTON

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