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PAM - tasks—with a risk of 23.2 times worse than driving...

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Findings from the National Highway Traffic Safety Association’s (NHTSA) naturalistic driving studies indicate that more than 20 percent of all crashes and near crashes in 2008 were directly contributed to driver involvement in secondary tasks (9). The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute conducted naturalistic driving studies and found that text messaging on a cell phone was associated with the highest risk of all cell phone related
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Unformatted text preview: tasks—with a risk of 23.2 times worse than driving while not using a phone (3). The NHTSA reported that 5,870 persons died (16 percent of all fatalities) and an estimated 515,000 individuals were injured in police-reported crashes involving driver distraction in 2009 (15). In efforts to decrease accidents both fatal and non-fatal, 31 states and the District of Columbia have adopted bans on texting while driving (Appendix 1)....
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