Unformatted text preview: THINKING 0. The representation and processing of information in the mind to: 0. Solve problems 1. Make choices and decisions 2. Reason The importance of representations 0. Analogical vs. symbolic representations 3. The difference: whether the representation shares some of the object's features 0. Orientation in space (mental rotation) 1. "scannability" (Kosslyn's scanning study) 2. Size (more Kosslyn 4. Analogic representations and the brain 3. Imagery involves some of the same structures as perception (p. 4) The limits of analogic representations 1. Effects of interpretation 5. The rabbit-duck figure (p. 275) 6. Distortions of spatial knowledge (p. 276) 7. Effects of meaning on memory for forms Symbolic Representations 2. Note: Symbolic representations are not necessarily verbal 3. Concepts, networks and propositions 8. Anderson's ACT theory (p. 279) 9. Spreading activation 4. Issues: 10. How are concepts represented in the brain? 11. What are the units in networks? How are concepts represented? 5. Research suggesting concepts are built around concepts Which of the following best fits the category?? What are the units in networks? 6. Concept-like units vs. neuron-like units in "distributed" networks (p. 279) Problem solving: Getting from an initial state to a goal state. 7. The importance of the right representation 8. The case of number scrabble: Try to pick three cards that sum to 15 A good representation (play tic-tack-toe in your head) Types of Problem Representations 9. Analogical represenations (e.g., visual images) 12. The Buddhist Monk problem 10. Symbols 13. The Mary and Susan problem 11. Mary is twice Susan's age minus 10 12. Five years from now, Mary will be 8 years older than Susan at that time. 13. What are their ages now? The Mary and Susan Problem 14. M = 2S 10 15. M+5 = S + 5 + 8 16. 2S 10 + 5 = S + 5 + 8 17. 2S 5 = S + 13 18. 2S = S + 18 19. S = 18 20. M = 2 (18) 10 = 36 10 = 26 More Problem Representations Diagrams Which is more probable with six flips of a coin: HHHHHH ? HTHHTT ? More Problem Representations Matrices: The hospital problem 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The hospital problem Thomas has asthma Thomas is in room 101 Smith is in room 102 Green is in room 105 The patient with mono is in room 104 Lopez has heard disease Smith has TB Anderson does not have gall bladder disease Lopez=heart, Smith=TB, Anderson not = gall bladder Lopez=heart, Smith=TB, Anderson not = gall bladder 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Lopez=heart, Smith=TB, Anderson not = gall bladder Lopez=heart, Smith=TB, Anderson not = gall bladder The processes of problem solving: Heuristics vs. Algorithms The problem space and selective search of the space 14. The Tower of Hanoi Subgoaling as selective search The Tower of Hanoi Search space for the Tower of Hanoi Heuristics Random search 15. Thorndike's puzzle box Hill-climbing 16. Achieving short-term vs. long-term goals Working backwards 17. The water lily problem (p. 285) Means/end (subgoaling heuristics) 18. The hobbits and orcs problem Getting everyone across: Solving insight problems: The concept of "restructuring" (p. 287) 19. Khler's studies with chimps 20. The nine-dot & matchstick problems (p. 282,285) 21. The horse and rider problem (p. 285, 287) Khler's problem-solving apes Characteristics of insight problems: 28. Verbalization can hurt. 29. Verbalization can miss things: The unconscious use of hints in the Maier String problem Factors that limit problem-solving 30. Functional fixedness 22. The Candle (and Maier string) problem. Factors that limit problem-solving 31. Functional fixedness 23. The Candle (and Maier string) problem. 32. Mental set 24. The water-jug problem (p. 284) How would you use pails A, B & C to get the desired amount of water? Factors that limit problem-solving 33. Functional fixedness 25. The Candle (and Maier string) problem. 34. Mental set 26. The water-jug problem (p. 284) 35. Failures to find an appropriate analogy 27. The Duncker tumor problem (p. 286) The Duncker tumor problem An analog to the tumor problem Analogy and problem isomorphs. The difficulty of using analogies 28. The Glick and Holyoak studies 29. The lesson: People are often poor at thinking of useful analogs 4. Surface versus deep structure of problem situations How to benefit from analogies? 30. Compare isomorphs & look for structural similarities Creativity and Incubation Incubation: Poincar's reminiscence Failures of experiments to support the incubation hypothesis The Silveira (1971) study 31. A man had 4 chains, 32. Each 3 links long 33. Opening a link costs 2 cents 34. Closing a link costs 3 cents 35. The man had his four chains joined to form a closed chain for 15 cents 36. How did he do it? The Solution OOO C C C (6 cents) C OOO C C OOO (9 cents) Results 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. OOO 42. 43. Control group: 50% solution 44. 30 minute break group: 64% solution 45. 4 hour break group: 85% solution 46. But, subjects did not return with insights
Alternatives to the unconscious thought hypothesis: Fatigue Forgetting of inappropriate sets Additional (conscious but forgotten ) thought Chance occurrence (a new retrieval cue) Effects of Expertise (p. 283) 51. The classic DeGroot studies of chess: Chunks in chess 47. 48. 49. 50. Effects of Expertise (p. 283) What makes chess masters so good? Higher-order patterns and strategic grouping Cross-referenced knowledge Automatized subroutines Reasoning 52. Deductive reasoning: From the general to the specific . . . 40. Syllogisms (p. 290) 41. Conditional (if-then) reasoning 5. Affirming the antecedent and denying the consequent 6. The importance of schemas: The Wason card task. Conditional reasoning (p. 291) 53. Identify the antecedent & consequent: 42. Antecedent: "If the switch is turned on. . ." 43. Consequent: "then the light will go on." 54. Then assess whether the second statement affirms or denies the antecedent or consequent 44. "The light does not go on" denies the consequent When a valid conclusion can be drawn: The Card Selection Task: Check out this rule: "If a card has a vowel on one side, it has an even number on the other." Check out this rule: "If a person is drinking beer, they must be 21 years of age." An Hypothesis: 55. Pragmatic reasoning schemas 45. Learned from experience or genetically prewired? Induction (p. 293) 56. Going from specific observations to a make a general claim 57. Going from a set of observations to predict a particular case 46. e.g., judging probabilities or frequencies Heuristics in induction 8. Availability (p. 293) 0. Buying flood insurance and estimating causes of death 1. The "R-word" experiment 9. Representativeness (p. 296) 2. The prison guard experiment 3. Audition/performance discrepancies (Nisbett's research on what taking statistics can do) 10. Confirmation Bias (p. 296): 4. In the card selection task and in science Making other decisions and choices 58. Framing effects (p. 300-01): 47. Aversion to loss 59. Are we rational decision makers? 48. The optimistic view: 7. People sometimes avoid using poor heuristics 8. We have mathematical and logical tools that keep us away from error 9. Sometimes being rational is good (even rational?) Executive control and consciousness 60. Is there one executive" 3 or 4?" or many? 61. Do people differ in executive control 49. Operation span and cognition (p. 303) 62. Consciousness and its purpose 37. 38. 39. 50. Since many processes are not conscious (or need not be) . . .what is consciousness for? 51. And how does it work (the face-house study)? 52. And shy is conscious experience unitary? ...
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- Spring '08
- maier string problem, Susan Problem, TB Anderson