Definitions Ch. 3&4

Definitions Ch. 3&4 - Chapter 3 – Perceiving...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 – Perceiving Others 1. Androgynous – Possessing both masculine and feminine traits o Jordan is (now it seems) to be an androgynous name as it is becoming more common among girls. 2. Attribution – The process of attaching meaning to another person’s behavior o While people strive to attribute reasons for behaviors, they fall into many traps of biases and errors. 3. Empathy – The ability to project oneself onto another person’s point of view in an attempt to experience his or her thoughts and feelings. o It is impossible to achieve total empathy given that one can never be able to completely understand the viewpoint of another person or share the exact same emotions of the other person at the exact same time. 4. Fundamental attribution error – A mistaken human tendency that has two main parts: on the one hand, when others suffer, we often blame the problem on their personal qualities and we underestimate the impact of the situation; on the other hand, when we experience failure, we find explanations outside ourselves but we are quick to take credit when we succeed. o The fundamental attribution error can lead to harsh stereotyping and faulty conclusions about someone’s current situation. 5. Gender – Psychological sex type o The topic of gender roles has become very controversial over the past few decades with the constant pressures of social equality between everyone. 6. Halo effect – The power of a first impression to influence subsequent perceptions o The halo effect can sometimes lead to unfair judgments of people given the fact that subsequent impressions will be biased based on the positive or negative first impression of the person. 7. Interpretation – The process of attaching meaning to sense data. Synonymous with decoding o Once we have selected and organized our perceptions, we interpret them in a way that makes some sort of sense. 8. Narrative – The stories we use to describe our personal worlds o When our narratives clash with those of others, we can either hang onto our own point of view or refuse to consider anyone else’s (usually not productive) or try to negotiate a narrative that creates at least some common ground. 9. Negotiation – A process in which two or more people discuss specific proposals in order to find a mutually acceptable agreement. o When our narratives clash with those of others, we can either hang onto our own point of view or refuse to consider anyone else’s (usually not productive) or try to negotiate a narrative that creates at least some common ground. 10. Organization – The stage in the perception process that involves arranging data in a meaningful way. o The raw sense data we perceive can be organized in more than one way. We do this by using perceptual schema, which are cognitive frameworks that allow us to give order to the information we have selected. 11. Perception checking – A three part method for verifying the accuracy of interpretations, including a description of the sense data, two possible interpretations, and a request for confirmation of the interpretations. o The goal of perception checking is a co ­operative approach to communication and signals an attitude of respect and concern for the other person. 12. Psychological sex type – A person, regardless of his/her biological sex, can act in a masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated manner. o If stereotypical masculine and feminine ways of behaving are not opposite poles of a single continuum and instead two separate sets of behavior, the masculine ­feminine dichotomy can be replaced with four psychological sex types. 13. Punctuation – The process of determining the causal order of events o Rather than argue about whose punctuation of an event is correct, it’s far more productive to recognize that a dispute can look different to each party and then move on to the more important question: “what can we do to make things better?” 14. Selection – A phase of the perception process in which a communicator attends to a stimulus from the environment. Also, way communicators manage dialectical tensions by responding to one end of the dialectical spectrum and ignoring the other. o Since we are exposed to more input than we can possibly manage, the first step in perception is the selection of which data we will attend to. 15. Self serving bias – The tendency to judge one’s self in the most generous terms possible, while being more critical of others. o When a person can overcome their own self ­serving biases, then they will be able to achieve far more success and also learn much more from their mistakes. 16. Standpoint theory – A body of scholarship that explores how one’s position in a society shapes one’s view of society in general, and of specific individuals. o Standpoint theory is most often applied to the difference between the perspectives of privileged social groups and people who have less power, and to the perspectives of women and men. 17. Stereotyping – Exaggerated beliefs associated with a categorical system. o Stereotyping is a risky, offensive, and non ­productive exercise. Ethnic jokes may be humorous, but are built on a foundation of misinformation and bias. 18. Sympathy – Feeling of compassion for another person’s emotions: entails less identification than empathy. o During the 9/11 attacks, much of the world had great sympathy for the victims onboard the planes and their families as well. Chapter 2 19. Debilitative emotions – Emotions that prevent a person from functioning effectively o The difference between facilitative and debilitative emotions is often not one of quality as much as degree. For instance, a certain amount of anger or irritation can be constructive, whereas rage usually makes matters worse. 20. Emotional contagion – The process by which emotions are transferred from one person to another o Although people differ in the extent to which they are susceptible to emotional contagion, most of us recognize the degree to which emotions are infectious. 21. Emotionally counterfeit – Communications where the sender thinks he/she is expressing a feeling when, in fact, his/her statement is devoid of emotional content o Many communicators think they are expressing feelings when, in fact, their statements are emotionally counterfeit. 22. Facilitative emotions – Emotions that contribute to effective functioning o The difference between facilitative and debilitative emotions is often not one of quality as much as degree. For instance, a certain amount of anger or irritation can be constructive, whereas rage usually makes matters worse. 23. Fallacy of approval – The irrational belief that it is vital to win the approval of virtually every person with whom a communicator interacts o Communicators who subscribe to the fallacy of approval go to extreme lengths to seek acceptance from others. 24. Fallacy of catastrophic expectations – The irrational belief that the worst possible outcome will probably occur o The fallacy of catastrophic expectations is a position very similar to the famous “Murphy’s Law”. 25. Fallacy of causation – The irrational belief that emotions are caused by others and not by the person who has them o People who live their lives in accordance with the fallacy of causation believe that they should do nothing that can hurt or in any way inconvenience others because it will cause undesirable feelings. 26. Fallacy of helplessness – The irrational belief that satisfaction in life is determined by forces beyond one’s control o Occasionally, people belonging to religious groups fall victim to the fallacy of helplessness in which they feel that a higher being governs all aspects of their lives. 27. Fallacy of overgeneralization – Irrational beliefs in which conclusions (usually negative) are based on limited evidence, or communicators exaggerate their shortcomings o The fallacy of overgeneralization often has people focusing on a single shortcoming as if it represented everything. 28. Fallacy of perfection – The irrational belief that a worthwhile communicator should be able to handle every situation with complete confidence and skill o People who accept the fallacy of perfection believe that a worthwhile communicator can handle any situation perfectly. 29. Fallacy of should – The irrational belief that people should behave in the most desirable way o The fallacy of should is a huge source of unhappiness as it is unreasonable to insist that the world operate just as one wants it to. 30. Rational emotive approach – A method for getting rid of debilitative feelings while remaining sensitive to the more facilitative emotions. o The rational ­emotive approach is based on the idea that the key to changing feelings is to change unproductive thinking. 31. Self talk – The non vocal, internal monologue that is our process of thinking. o The key to understanding and changing feelings lies in the pattern of thought that manifests itself through self ­talk. ...
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