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Final review - Final Review North America Native America...

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Final Review
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North America: Native America
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Grass Dance (Sioux) CD 1:3 § Plains style: § tense, high singing style § falsetto § vocables § overlapping entrances and repetition of phrases
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Nightway Ceremony § takes place over nine nights § purpose: healing of sick person (the “one- sung-over”) § dance, songs, costumes, masks § Yebichai songs (on last night) § hundreds of other songs with elaborate texts and poetry § sand painting § purification; prayer offerings § retelling of Nightway myth § Yebichai (ancestor deities) come to dance in ceremony
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CD 1:6 Yebichai (Navajo). § Part of Nightway ceremony
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listening to Yebichai § two high falsetto whoops at beginning § short intro on tonic note ( do) § high, tense vocal production (like Plains singing) and falsetto § entirely vocables (no text) § rattles
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Yebichai performance § last night of the 9-night ceremony, § singers organized in teams, sometimes regional § each team sings several songs § dance of the gods in two parallel lines § teams compete, winners receive gift from hosting family § besides Yebichai songs, there are hundreds of other Nightway songs with elaborate texts and poetry
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Sub-Saharan Africa
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General Characteristics of African Music § interlocking melodies and rhythmic parts § preference for dense, overlapping textures, and buzzy timbre § cyclical forms (based on rhythmic/melodic ostinatos) § flexible approaches to rhythms often combining or juxtaposing units of twos and threes § (e.g., Agbekor features a 12-beat cycle in a “4 feel” and/or “6 feel”) § descending melodic shape § musical roles including “core” and “elaboration” parts
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West Africa
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CD 1:11&12 “Agbekor” (Ewe of Ghana and Togo)
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Ewe speakers (in yellow)
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Anlo Ewe § decentralized society § religion permeates all aspects of family and community life § extended family and lineage important § spirits of ancestors are protectors § Supreme being: Mawu § Se, another deity, the maker and keeper of human souls
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Music of the Anlo Ewe § musical lineage: talent comes from ancestral spirits § funerals are important ceremonies, venues for agbekor performance § much of music is learned informally from an early age; agbekor, however requires specialized training
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