05-globalization+of+taste

05-globalization+of+taste - Black Pepper Native to India...

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1 Black Pepper • Native to India • Known in Greece by 5 BC • Romans used pepper as spice Salt and Pepper • The merchants of Venice controlled the importation of pepper (6AD - 1500AD) The globalization of the Spice Trade Prince Henry the Navigator b. 1394. Establishes navigational school in Portugal. Convinced that India could be reached by sailing along coast of Africa “And the rest is History” A worthy footnote: 1492 – Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) thinks Portugal errs in sailing East, and looks for a western route. Discovers Capsicums (red chili pepper) and Pimenta dioica (allspice) vanilla, cocoa bean In his journal he writes: That I have no knowledge of the products causes me the greatest sorrow in the world, for I see a thousand kinds of trees, each one with its own special trait, as well as a thousand kinds of herbs with their Fowers; yet I know none of them, but I am well assured they are valuable.
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2 Chili Pepper & Columbus • On Columbus’s second journey, He brought Chile pepper’s to Europe. • Within 50 years they had been introduced to most of the known world. Pungent chemicals O O N O HO N H O piperine (pepper) capsaicin (chili) relative pungency 1 150-300 Scoville Organoleptic Test • In Scoville's method, an alcohol extract of the capsaicin oil from a measured amount of dried pepper is added incrementally to a solution of sugar in water until the "heat" is just detectable by a panel of (usually Fve) tasters; the degree of dilution gives its measure on the Scoville scale.
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3 The Hottest!!! Scoville scale Scoville rating Type of pepper 15,000,000–16,000,000 Pure capsaicin 8,600,000–9,100,000 Various capsaicinoids 5,000,000–5,300,000 Law Enforcement Grade pepper spray 855,000–1,075,000 Bhut Jolokia 876,000–970,000 Dorset Naga 350,000–580,000 Red Savina habanero 100,000–350,000 Guntur Chilli, Habanero chili 50,000–100,000 Bird's eye chili/Thai Pepper/Indian Pepper 30,000–50,000 Cayenne Pepper, Ají pepper, Tabasco pepper 10,000–23,000 Serrano Pepper, Chichen Itza 2,500–8,000 Jalapeño Pepper, Guajillo pepper, 500–2,500 Anaheim pepper, 100–500 Pimento, Peperoncini 0 No signiFcant heat, Bell pepper Bhut Jolokia Nutmeg & Cloves Europe Competition Francis Drake Circumnavigates globe Discovers San Francisco in 1579 The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England is the beginning of the end for Spanish and Portuguese in±uence. England and the Dutch then dominate the Age of Exploration. Two great spice trading companies emerge: Dutch East India Company : monopoly in the spice islands (now Indonesia). English East India Company
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4 Manhattan Island $24 USA role in spices Flavors & Beverages Use of aromas in the production of foods Beverages 46% Candy 14% Snacks 14% Breads 7% Milk Prod. 6% Desserts 5% Ice Cream 4%
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5 Aromas for Foods More than 50% of aromas used in Flavoring Foods are from plant materials Aromas which are very volatile are often separated from plant materials with Steam and are called “ Essential Oils Aromas which are extracted from foods with solvents (vinegar, alcohol or oil) are called Extracts Aromas can also be “ Synthetic ”. The Vanillin in Vanilla extract may be either natural or synthetic.
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05-globalization+of+taste - Black Pepper Native to India...

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