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06-lecture - Honey Hunter of bees Arana Spain 7000 BCE The...

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1 Honey The oldest written reference to the use of honey is thought to be Egyptian, of about 5500BC. At that time Lower Egypt was called Bee Land while Upper Egypt was Reed Land. Hunter of bees, Arana, Spain 7000 BCE Sugarcane History Cultivated in India in 400 BCE Sugarcane cultivation technology carried to China and Arabia Crusaders brought sugarcane cultivation to Europe Columbus took sugar to New World in 1493
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2 Napoleon Bonaparte Sugar trade source of great wealth for Britain The British made all exports of manufactured goods to their colonies in British ships and the ships returned with rum and sugar System collapsed in the 1800s Low prices due to competition from beet sugar Emancipation and End of slave trade (1830 in England)
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3 next to ^ Long Sea Voyages Between 1500 and 1800, it has been estimated that scurvy killed at least two million sailors. In 1499, Vasco da Gama lost 116 of his crew of 170; In 1520, Magellan lost 208 out of 230; ...all mainly to scurvy. ……defective collagen formation and is marked by joint pains, irritability, growth retardation, anemia, shortness of breath, and increased susceptibility to infection. …..Later linked to Vitamin C deficiency. Napoleon Bonaparte In 1800 Napoleon offered a 12,000 franc reward to anyone who could devise a method for the food preservation in order to provide his troops with daily rations in order to keep his armies adequately supplied while on the march.
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4 Nicolas Francis Appert After years of experimentation, Appert submitted his invention and won the prize in 1809. He became known as the ”Father of canning," Before his invention he was a confectioner (candy maker). How to prevent microbial growth. High Temperature thermal death Low Temperature low (refrigeration) or very low (frozen) Remove Moisture dry - dehydration Control H 2 O availability add sugar or salts pH Control add acid - lower pH Oxygen add or restrict - aerobic or anaerobic In 1811, Appert published a book revealing his method for preserving food. His book was called "L'Art De Conserver, pendant plueieurs annes, Toutes les Substances Animales et Vegetales" Translated, that means “The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances For Several years.” Though the title wasn’t very catchy, the book sold in abundance. His invention was a success, yet he never was able to explain why his method worked. In 1810, an Englishman named Peter Durand was granted a patent from King George III for the idea of preserving food in "vessels of glass, pottery, tin or other metals or fit materials."
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5 The British are Coming By 1813, tins of preserved food were supplying the British army and navy. The Royal Navy used as many as 24,000 large cans, nearly 40,000 pounds on its ships each year by 1818. The nutritious canned vegetables were a great relief to sailors who previously had relied on live cargo or salted meat and were often plagued by debilitating scurvy. It was believed that the salt caused the condition, when it was actually because the salt-cured foods lost most of their vitamins and nutrients in the preservation process.
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