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Unformatted text preview: A "relatively permanent" change in behavior that occurs through experience The learning theory perspective Learning is based on associations More complex learning involves merely more associations Learning in animals involves the same basic processes as learning in humans Learning The three classic learning paradigms Habituation A decline in response to repeated stimulation When and originally neutral st imulus beco mes associated with a physio logical or emotional response When st imuli strengthen or weaken the likelihood of a given behavioral response Classical or Pavlovian conditioning Operant or instrumental conditioning Pavlov's insight Key concepts (p. 200) Classical Conditioning The uncondit io ned st imulus (US) The uncondit io ned response (UR) The condit ioned st imulus (CS) The condit ioned response (CR) At the start of learning: After learning Basic Procedures Standard pairing (the CS slightly precedes the US) Forward, simultaneous & backward pairing (p. 203) Low learning with simultaneous and backward Highest learning with forward interval of about sec. Trace conditioning: A greater role for the hippocampus Temporal conditioning: Time itself becomes a CS Other Features of Classical Conditioning The negatively accelerated learning curve Extinction: The weakening of the CS in the absence of the US (p. 201) Spontaneous recovery Generalization (p. 202): Little Albert Discrimination Still more Features of Classical Conditioning Conditioned emotional responses Response suppression (p. 207) Fear and anxiety (p. 205) Pavlov's "experimental neurosis" Compensatory responses (p. 209) Addictions Classical conditioning involving contextual cues Curing an addiction: Stopping the CS/UCS pairing Counterconditioning (Mary Cover Jones) & treatment of phobias (p. 207) Advertising Acquisition: contiguity vs. contingency The elements of surprise and predictability Rescorla (1967): Learning of even weak contingencies Kamin: The famous blocking experiment A simplified view of the Rescorla method Acquisition: contiguity vs. contingency (cont'd) The Wagner/Rescorla theory: Tone always followed by shock conditioning between tone and shock Then start presenting light before tone No conditioning between light and shock. learn to the extent US is surprising (not predictable) The CS as a signal The temporal relation between CS and UCS The UR and CR can be quite different Saliva has less enzymes to tone than food Jumping vs. freezing to shocks vs. tones Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning Learning associations between behaviors & consequences Differences from Classical Conditioning The consequences of behavior change the probability of that behavior's occurrence Classical: Behaviors are elicited by CSs Instrumental: Behaviors are emitted & produce consequences Thorndike's Puzzle Box & the Law of Effect Do you ever feel like a cat in a puzzle box? The behaviorist argument: B. F. Skinner's "operant chambers" What looks like intelligence might be nothing other than instrumental conditioning Reinforcement & Punishment Positive and negative reinforcement increase a response Positive and negative punishment decrease a response Problems with punishment It can be cleverly avoided It can increase aggressive behavior It can cause injury Can produce fear/anxiety (which might be the problem) It can damage self-esteem In general, its effects on behavior are uncertain But if you must punish . . . Keep it as mild as possible. . . But don't start mild and then increase (p. 218) Couple with positive reinforcement for alternative behaviors Make the reasons clear Don't delay Be consistent Use negative (and nonpainful) punishers Use it when avoidance is what you want to teach Key concepts of instrumental conditioning: Learning curves, generalization & extinction Discriminative stimuli: The use of operant techniques to study perception (pigeons and art) Shaping Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers The Premack principle: More preferred behaviors can act as reinforcers of less preferred behaviors Schedules of reinforcement (p. 217) Fixed ratio and interval Variable ratio and interval Gamblers and predators Reinforcement comes after: Contingency (pp. 220-221) The importance of having control Infants and mobiles Learned helplessness and depression Seligman's theory Enduring puzzles What is a reinforcer? Intrinsic motivation (pp. 215-6) Just a matter of behavioral contrast? Or are there two different types of reward? Are play and creativity just plain fun? What is learned? Edward Tolman and: Latent learning Cognitive maps Act-outcome representations (next slide) The food-pellet/sugar-water experiment (pp. 219220) Animals learn what specific behaviors lead to what specific rewards Implications of Instrumental Conditioning Applied behavioral analysis and behavior modification The problems of "fuzziness" and delayed reinforcement/punishment Monitoring & scheduling behaviors Behavioral contracts Free will Beyond the behaviorist paradigm Varieties of learning Encoding, storage and retrieval of memories Systems of memory Does all learning obey the same laws? Varieties of Learning Effects of "belongingness" in classical learning The message fro m Garcia (p. 223) The Message from Garcia Some CS/US pairings are learned faster than others Taste/nausea > taste/shock Light-noise/shock > light-noise/nausea One-Trial Learning of taste/nausea associations with long CS/US delays Prepared learning Quail learn color/nausea associations better than taste/nausea associations Humans learn snake/shock associations better than flower/shock associations Pigeons learn to pecking/food associations better than pecking/shock associations But readily learn hop/shock associations Species specific learning mechanisms? Spatial location memory in nutcrackers Song learning in zebra finches Language learning in humans Observational learning in humans (even newborns) Learning and the brain Three neural loci of learning (pp. 227-8) Increased neurotransmitter release Kandel's work on Aplysia Increased sensitivity of post-synaptic neuron Long-term potentiation Creation of new synapses (at least in mammals) ...
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- Spring '08