ch 3 book notes

ch 3 book notes - Ch 3: Four Perspectives on Organizations...

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Theory – can be anything from simple ideas to formal systems of hypotheses that aim to explain, predict, and control Historical: product of time in which it emerged, reflecting the culture Metaphotical: uses language to suggest comparisons Theories are resources for enhancing our ability to explain and to act on practical issues 3 P’s Partial Each account only contains part of the story and there can be no full account or complete story of organizational com Partisan The story we tell is one that represents our views in ways that favor our interests; it is one that we favor Problematic The account asks more questions that it can answer, and the answers it provides are based on what is currently known rather than on all that could be known Classical management approaches – share the underlying metaphor of organizations as efficient machines From empires to hierarchies (18 th -19 th century) Corporations were seen as extensions of government Ben Frankling popularized the notion of hard work Frederick the Great utilized a model of organizational action based on the division of labor and machine-like efficiency The classical theory of management is characterized by: Division of labor – separation of tasks into discrete units Hierarchy – vertical arrangemnt of power and authority that distinguishes managers from employees
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Employees weren’t always willing to passibely accept the authority of managers Resistance to domination – any action on the part of oppressed individuals to lessen the contraints placed on them by those in power Hidden transcripts – themes and arguments that are well known by members of an oppressed group but kept out of the public eye for fear of reprisal from those in power Frederick Taylor’s scientific management is based on the assumption that management is a true science resting on clearly defined laws, rules, and principles Scientific management – management-oriented, production-centered view of organizations and communication Its ideal is the efficient machine and holds that humans function as components or parts Henri Faylo’s classical management consists of 5 key elements: Planning Organizing Commanding (goal setting) Coordinating Controlling (evaluating) Katherine Miller groups Fayol’s principles into 4 categories: Structure Strick hieratchy with a clear chain of command Power Centralization of decision-making and respect for authority Reward Fair remuneration for well-desired efforts Attitude Employees should subordinate their personal interests to those of the organization
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Bureaucracy came about in response to particularism (the ability of bosses to hire and fire employees at their will) and has the following characteristics: A fixed division of labor among participants A hierarchy of offices A set of general rules that govern performance
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ch 3 book notes - Ch 3: Four Perspectives on Organizations...

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