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Unformatted text preview: Intelligence 0. What is it? (p. 523-524) 0. The ability to, reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience 1. But not merely "book learning" or "test-taking smarts" 2. And it can vary across cultures. 0. And there probably will never be truly culture-fair tests 1. Raven's progressive matrices Tests of intelligence 1. Early history: Francis Galton 3. Focus on sensory, perceptual & motor processes 4. Assessment of correlations (p. 521) 2. The psychometric approach: Alfred Binet (p. 524) 5. Focus on cognitive tasks & educational concerns 6. Examples: p.525 7. Key concepts of psychometrics (p. 526) 2. Reliability (especially test-retest) 3. Validity (convergent, discriminant, & especially predictive) IQ and intelligence scales 0. Mental age (Binet) & IQ (Stern) 0. IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 1. The modern approach to IQ: 1. Tests constructed such that Mean = 100, SD = 15 (about 2/3rds of us f all between 85 and 115). 2. Types and subscales of intelligence 2. Spearman's concept of g (p. 528) 3. Hierarchical models: General ability plus more specialized talents (p. 529) 4. Fluid vs. crystalized intelligence 5. So how many, after all? 0. Limitations of factor analysis (pp. 527-529) Information processing theories of intelligence 0. Processing speed theories 1. Working memory theories 2. Differences in 0. Holding information in memory 1. Focus attention 2. Coordinate goals and activities 3. Operation span Beyond standardized tests and factor analysis 4. Gardiner's eight "frames of mind" including musical, bodily-kinesthetic and interpersonal intelligence (p. 536) 5. Sternberg's triarchic theory (p. 534) 3. Analytic, practical, and creative abilities 6. Emotional intelligence (p. 535) 4. Perceiving, using, understanding & managing emotions The heredity/environment controversy 3. Jensen (1969); Hernstein & Murray (1994) 4. An "underclass" of low IQ scorers? 5. The case for heritability: Figure 14.12 (p. 541): 8. IQ correlations of separated identical twins 9. IQ correlations in identical vs fraternal twins 10. Adoption studies: IQ correlations of children with biological vs. adopting parents 4. Biological parent/adopted child correlations grow with time! 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The case for environmental factors PP. 542-3) Negative age/IQ correlations in impoverished environments Cases of IQ increases with environmental enrichment Success in training of thinking skills Heritability estimates higher in higher SES samples Improving intelligence: The Flynn effect Group differences in IQ 12. Different groups have largely overlapping distributions of IQ (figure 14.3, p. 520) 13. The differences are reduced when take SES, education into account 14. High within-group heritability does not mean between-group differences are genetically
15. 6. 7. determined (p. 546) Sterotype threat effects The use and misuse of intelligence tests One number cannot sum up intelligence The difficulty of cultural/ethnic comparisons 11. Overlapping distributions 12. The lack of culture-fair tests 13. Differences in cultural relevance When assigning students to groups: 14. Do not rely solely on test scores 15. Perform periodic testing Mental retardation & giftedness Mental retardation: Not just low IQ 5. Adaptive competence 6. Cognitive factors: Low metacognitive skills 7. Hereditary & environmental factors Giftedness: Not just high IQ 8. A superior talent 9. Other characteristics: Precocity, unique learning styles, passion for mastery 8. 16. 17. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 2301 taught by Professor Holub during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.
- Spring '08