notes for psych exam 2

notes for psych exam 2 - Psychology: Exam 2 2/9/11 Operant...

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Psychology: Exam 2 2/9/11 Operant Conditioning Law of effect o Behavior that’s followed by positive consequences is likely to occur again o Learning is based on associations developed through experience o New behaviors are a result of trial and error o Argument against insight problem solving Learning is incremental Law of use and disuse o Behaviors that we used will be strengthened and won’t go away Skinner’s main contributions o Behavioral control o Radical behaviorism o Schedules of reinforcement o Applications: Baby tender: optimal environment for a baby Pigeon: guided missile (classical conditioning) Walden two Fantasy of scientific social planning Rural community of 1000 members Children raised by professionals Noam Chomsky’s response: Nazi camp Positive and negative reinforcements o Reinforcements: makes a response more likely to occur again Positive: by adding something Negative: by removing something o 2 levels: Secondary: things you change exchange for primary reinforcements (money/token economics) Factors in scheduled reinforcement o Varies along two factors o Ratio v interval: number of responses v time o Fixed v variable: responses based on time v vary around its mean Four possible schedules o Fixed variable ratio: based on number of responses held constant, responses pause or slowdown after each reward, and no time factor o Fixed interval: certain amount of time must pass before the next response is rewarded, amount of time is always constant, and after the award there is a slowdown then speeds up o Variable ratio: based on number of responses, varies around average, and there is a high rate of consistent responding o Variable interval: based on amount of time that must pass before next response is rewarded, most resistant to extinction, and there is very little change in the result rate Punishment o Decrease likelihood that behavior will occur again
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By application (adding something) Miss curfew, extra chores By removal Miss curfew, take away car keys Swift matters more than magnitude o Effects on relationships Punishment suppresses, doesn’t eliminate Teaches discrimination Teaches fear and creates association Mode is aggression as a methods to solve problems 2/10/11 Observational Learning Imitation o Mirror neurons: when we see an action, the same mirror neurons are activated as when we engage in that action o This helps us imitate that action o Doesn’t require conscious mapping o Ex. Babies sticking their tongue out when they see you do it Facial feedback study (pen study) When you engage in a social expression, you actually start to feel that action Bobo doll experiment (Bandura): o 3 conditions: Aggressive adult model Nonaggressive adult model Control group with no adult o Doll was placed in a play room and the child watch how the adult treated the doll, then played
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notes for psych exam 2 - Psychology: Exam 2 2/9/11 Operant...

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