Ethic Notes - 17:41 Towhatextent(ifany)(free)ofpersonal,socialandcultural values

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Ethical Considerations 17:41 Defining science again… Science is a human activity as social knowledge Questions to be raised by this: To what extent (if any) is science independent (free) of personal, social and cultural  values? To what extent should scientific data and theories shape moral and social values? To what extent should social and moral values shape scientific theory? Scientific wish list: Constitutive values – dictate what should be done Wish for objectivity Is science ever really objective? The importance of operational definitions Was it ever/can it ever be? The wish for ‘dispassionate reason (Whitehead) Science without personal investment? –Thorndike, experimenter bias Contextual values – dictate what is allowed The wish for amorality Is data really value free? Was it ever/Can it ever be? Ex. E=MC 2 Does the end justify the means (methods vs. ethics)
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Is the pursuit of knowledge sufficient justification for all scientific enterprises? Milgram (1961) – “obedience” shock the learner Zimbardo (1971) – “social roles” prison study WWII medical experiments (1930-44) Data is contained and locked up, there was no consent, and no backing out Nuremberg Code Tuskegee Stufy (1930-70’s) Influence on culture “zrigeist” – spirit of the times psycho-dynamic theory (Freud) popular due to its shocking (to Victorians) concepts ethnocentrism (Galtonians) – eugenics movement 1870-1930 anthropomorphism – humans at the top of the intelligence chain: used to justify animal  research social Darwinism – used to justify discriminatory practices (slavery, separate but  (un)equal views on gender and race Women were not allowed to earn advanced degrees until well into the 20 th  century Mary Whiton Calkins – the first woman president of the APA never officially received a  PhD Women weren’t smart enough Were unsuited for professional careers Education would interfere with maternal instincts
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Even when degrees were earned, couldn’t get academic positions Helen Woolley (1903) Guthrie (1976) – Even the Rat was White Ethics in the practice of science Fair treatment of participants Consent v coerce Invasiveness Deceit (importance of debriefing) Inducement of uncomfortable states (motion sickness) Animal research – special precautions/no consent Honest evaluation/analysis/reporting of data Plagiarism Falsifying data Our mandate All psychologists should Understand ethical obligations Respect those obligations Carry put research in an ethical manner
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17:41 What makes “good” questions (scientific)?
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2012 for the course PSY 293 taught by Professor Dr.hall during the Summer '09 term at Miami University.

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Ethic Notes - 17:41 Towhatextent(ifany)(free)ofpersonal,socialandcultural values

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