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Exam 1 Notes - ResearchMethods Clear Testable Validity...

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Research Methods 20:01 How do you create a good hypothesis Come up with an educated guess Put the guess into words that make it Clear Testable Developing a research design Independent and dependent variables Validity Internal validity Is IV solely responsible for the change in the DV External validity Can you generalize to different Settings Time People Types of research designs Studies involving correlations Epidemiological studies Studying the incidence, distribution and consequences No manipulations
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Correlation does not imply causation Directionality is unknown Studies involving experiments Involves the manipulation of an independent variable and the observation of its effects Must be random assignment Can never be 100% sure of causation Types of experiments – Group experimental design: 1 group, 1 treatment, and follow them Experiments with control groups Comparative treatment research Control groups in clinical research How do you deal with the placebo effect? What kind of validity does this threaten Placebo control group How do you design a placebo control in psychology How do you deal with allegiance effects? Quasi-Experimental Design No random assignment Compare groups on pre-existing conditions Studying multiple influences Longitudinal design – following the same group of people for years
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Cross-sectional design – take a section of the population and look at multiple groups at  once Sequential design – follow many groups over a long period of time Culture Questions to keep in mind when studying culture or cross-cultures Are these research methods & measures appropriate? Are your questions getting at the same thing? What aspect of culture makes the difference? Do you want to study within cultures or across cultures? Replication No one study is perfect Statistical conclusion validity Type I errors: false positive Type II errors: false negative Different methods and different reporters can result in different results Non-empirical research articles that use cumulative evidence Meta-analysis Review article Research ethics Created in response to previous ethical abuse in research Institutional review board (IRB) Informed consent Health insurance portability and accountability act (HIPAA), 1996
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History of Abnormal Psych 20:01 Controversy about the definition of physiological disorder
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History of Abnormal Psych 20:01 Psychopathology Focuses Clinical description Causation (etiology) Treatment and outcome Types of careers: Clinical and counseling psychologists (PhD, PsyD) Psychiatrists (MD) Psychiatric social workers (MSW) Psychiatric nurses (MN, MSN, PhD) Marriage and family therapists (MA, MS, MFT) Mental health counselors (MA, MS)
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