sia93-3notes - Unit 3 Environmental Chemistry Topic Notes...

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Unit 3 Environmental Chemistry Topic Notes Transport In Air The direction and distance that airborne chemicals travel are determined by various factors, including: ± The properties of the chemical pollutant ± The wind speed ± The direction of the prevailing winds The distribution of particles may also be limited by lack of wind or precipitation. Ocean Currents Surface Winds Transport In Groundwater Water in Alberta - Water that soaks into the soil is collected in a zone called the groundwater zone. The top of the groundwater zone in the soil is called the water table . Groundwater moves sideways, up or down and can move very slowly (1 meter per year) or very quickly (1 meter per day). Certain contaminants ( ) can remain collected in the groundwater for long periods of time (because they are heavy metals), posing problems if the groundwater is used for drinking, agricultural purposes or industrial use. 3.0 Potentially harmful substances are spread and concentrated in the environment in various ways. The source of a pollutant may be in one place, but it can show up in many other places around the world. 3.1 – Transport of Materials Through Air, Soil and Water There are three stages of transport of substances in the environment:. ± Release of chemicals at the source ± Dispersion of the chemical into the atmosphere ± Deposition of the chemical in soil or water
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Unit 3 Environmental Chemistry Topic Notes Factors that affect the movement of contaminants in groundwater include the number and connection of pores (tiny spaces between soil grains) in the soil. When the pores are packed together very tightly and are not connected, the soil is considered impermeable . If the pores are connected the soil is permeable and water can move through easily. Minerals Rocks and Soil Iron, Calcium, Selenium Natural Organic Substances Soil Pesticides, solvents Natural & Human Activities Leached Substances Landfill sites, mines Heavy metals, organics Human Activities Leaked substances Underground storage tanks, pipelines Gasoline, Natural gas, oil Human Activities Inorganic substances Run-off De-icing roadways, sewage, industrial processes Human Activities Micro-organisms Septic tanks, sewage treatment ponds, runoff Bacteria, viruses, Protozoans Human Activities Chemicals Household Nitrates, phosphates, detergents, cleaners Human Activities Transport In Surface Water Hazardous chemicals can enter surface water from the air, the groundwater, runoff from agricultural fields and industrial sites and outflow from storm sewers and sewage treatment plants. A substance that dissolves in water easily may be carried by water a fair distance and dispersed over a wide area.
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2012 for the course SCIE 027 taught by Professor Edward during the Fall '11 term at Broward College.

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sia93-3notes - Unit 3 Environmental Chemistry Topic Notes...

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