Cells of the Nervous System There are two major cell types within the nervous system. Neurons are the cells that respond to stimuli with electrical activity and release neurotransmitters; glia cells are a diverse class of cells that support the cells of the nervous system. Glia cells are more numerous than neurons and have a variety of functions, including the production of myelin , formation of the blood-brain barrier and making cerebral spinal fluid . Neurons Neurons come in lots of different shapes and the shape of a neuron usually reflects its function within the nervous system. Regardless of the shape, most neurons have several structures in common. All neurons have a cell body that produces the proteins and energy required by the cell. Extending out from the cell body are several specialized neuronal processes . Neurons have a large number of short dendrites extending away from the cell body that receive information from other neurons and one long axon arising from the axon hillock
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