Energy levels fill from the inside out

Energy levels fill from the inside out - Nonpolar molecules...

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Energy levels fill from the inside out Behavior of atoms: chemical bonds Atoms want to be "happy"—meaning having a full outer energy level One path to happiness: ionic bonds o Occurs when an atom gives one or two electrons to another atom, giving both "full" outer energy levels o Ion: charged particle (atom or group of atoms) o Ions "stick" together because opposite charges attract —forming a bond o Electrolyte: molecule that dissolves in water to form ions Sometimes the individual, dissolved ions are also called electrolytes Another path to happiness: covalent bonds o Outer level is "valence" level (from Latin word for outer garment) o Occurs when atoms share valence electrons (co-valent, get it?) o Sharing may not be equal Polar molecules occur when sharing is NOT equal Polar molecules are hydrophilic, or "get along with water" Ions also "get along with water" Nonpolar molecules occur when sharing IS equal
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Unformatted text preview: Nonpolar molecules are often hydrophobic, "don't get along with water" Other attractions (sometimes also referred to as "bonds" or "weak attractions") • Hydrogen bonds (formed when polar molecules stick together) • Other weak attractions from temporary shifts in charge within molecules Water • Water is cohesive—hydrogen bonds make it "sticky" • May be represented H 2 O or H-O-H or HOH • Solvent: something in which other molecules (solutes) are dissolved • Solution: mixture of solutes dissolved in a fluid solvent pH: acids, bases, and buffers • Water molecules may dissociate into H + and OH-o H + is the hydrogen ion o OH-is the hydroxide ion • Solutions with equal proportion of H + and OH-are "neutral" • Acids: solutions with higher proportion of H + • Bases: solutions with a lower proportion of H + (alkaline solutions) • Can be expressed as "power of Hydrogen" or pH...
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