women_and_work - Changes in Women's Lives: 18601900 Growth...

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Changes in Women’s Lives: 1860- 1900 Growth of College Education Growth of employment opportunities Domestic changes -- changes in home Most women continued to think of themselves first and foremost as wives and mothers. Growth of Women’s Organizations “Female Dominion” “Public Housekeeping”
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Women and Work, 1860-1920 Why are more women working outside of the home between 1860-1920? What are the challenges and opportunities they face?
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WOMEN Workers WORK OPPORTUNITIES More women working for wages 1870 -- 15% 1890 -- 18.9% 1910 -- 25.4%
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Why are More Women Working? 1860-1920 ECONOMIC CHANGE: THE GREAT TRANSITION: 1860-1920 INDUSTRIALIZATION— factories and wage work 1. women’s asset as workers—low wages 2. men unable to earn living wage 3. growth of low skill and low wage jobs 4. deskilling 5. loss of autonomy as worker URBANIZATION—the city
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Why are More Women Working? C. EXPANDING NUMBER OF WORKERS 1. IMMIGRATION; Ethnic Pluralism 2. MIGRATION
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Immigration and Migration 1815-1914 Greatest Population Shift in History 50 million immigrate 50 million move rural to urban 35 million come to the United States England 4 million Germany 6 million Scandinavia 2 million Italy 5 million Eastern Europe 8 million Greece 3 million Ireland 4 million Others 3 million
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Percent of Population in Cities 1860 - - - 20% 1900 - - - 40% Total Percentage -- Excluding the South 1860 - - - 27% 1900 - - - 51%
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Women and Work: 1860-1920 A. Demographics and Changes in Women’s Domestic Lives Population growth slows
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Why are more women working? Changes in Women’s Do mestic Lives 1. Birth Rate was Declining : 1800 -- almost 8 1860 -- 5.2 1900 -- 3.6 1930 -- 2.5
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Why declining birth rate? Science and progress Science and progress Valuation on motherhood and child nurture Valuation on motherhood and child nurture Urban life and economic pressure Urban life and economic pressure Education Education Voluntary motherhood Voluntary motherhood Victorian Sexual ideals? Victorian Sexual ideals? Birth control/Abortion Birth control/Abortion Individualism Individualism
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Why are more women working? Changes in Women’s Domestic Lives 2. Life Expectancy Increasing for Women: 1850 -- 40 1900 -- 51 1925 -- 63
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in Women’s Domestic Lives 3. Increased attention to each child as an individual (progressive issue). Concern with “children’s issues.”
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women_and_work - Changes in Women's Lives: 18601900 Growth...

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