GENERAL BOTANY Lecture 14 - I. Meiosis and the cell cycle A. Why is meiosis important? 1. Meiosis leads to variation - a basis of evolutionary change a) How: genes are shuffled during meiosis and combined uniquely at fertilization B. Important terms 1. Chromosome - a thread-like structure carrying the genetic material (DNA) and associated proteins 2. Homologous chromosomes - chromosomes from male and female which have the same length, shape, and genes 3. Chromatid - one of the thread-like structures of a replicated chromosome 4. Sister chromatids - replicates of the chromatid 5. Centromere - unduplicated area between chromatids where kinetochore is found 6. Gene - a section of DNA encoding a particular trait 7. Allele - an alternative form of a gene C. Overview of meiosis 1. Interphase - meiosis I - cytokinesis - interkinesis - meiosis II - cytokinesis 2. First division (meiosis) involves recombination and reduction in chromosome number 3. Second meiotic division is much like mitosis
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