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Growth and Repair - to form compact bone which can take...

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Growth and Repair Unsurprisingly, bones grow, remodel and repair themselves throughout life. As muscles pull on bones, slight damage results. Osteocytes sense this stress and stimulate the migration of osteoblasts to the site, which results in slightly thicker bone at that site (resulting in tuberosities). More seriously, bones can be broken. Stress fractures are caused by abnormal trauma to a bone; in contrast a pathological fracture is a break in a bone that has been weakened by a disease. Stages of healing A fracture first results in a fracture hematoma where the broken blood vessels form a blood clot. At the site of the hematoma, granulation tissue forms. This is a fibrous tissue formed by fibroblasts with a high concentration of capillaries (to supply raw materials and energy). Eventually, a callus forms; it begins as a soft callus of fibrocartilage that is replaced by a hard callus of bone in about six weeks. The last stage of healing is the remodeling of the spongy bone
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Unformatted text preview: to form compact bone, which can take upwards of six months. Osteopathology Several diseases can affect bones. Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease. It is often a disease of age. Bones lose mass and become brittle due to loss of both organic materials and mineral components. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk as estrogen aids in bone growth. Estrogen replacement therapy has been shown to slow bone resorption, but the best treatment is prevention -- exercise and calcium intake while bone growth is occurring. Another, less common disease is ricketts. This disease affects children in developing countries and is caused by deficiencies in calcium or vitamin D during childhood. The bones remain soft and can not support the increasing weight of the body causing severe deformities....
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