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Hydrophillic Hormones - Endocrine System Hydrophillic...

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Endocrine System Hydrophillic Hormones * These hormones easily penetrate the phospholipid plasma membrane and enter the cytoplasm. * They may enter the nucleus and bind to a receptor associated with the DNA * The receptor has 3 functional regions that explain its actions on the DNA * one that binds the hormone * one that binds to an acceptor site on the chromatin * one that activates DNA transcription at that site * Transcription produces new mRNA that leads to the synthesis of proteins, which then my alter the metabolism of the target cell Mechanisms of Hormone Action * Hydrophilic hormones cannot penetrate into a target cell, so they must exert their actions indirectly. * Hormones bind to cell-surface receptors which are linked to second-messengers systems on the other side of the plasma membrane. Second Messenger: Cyclic AMP Diacylglycerol (DG)and Inositol Triphosphate (IP3) as a second messenger * the binding of a hormone to a membrane receptor activates a G protein.
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