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Protein3 - Figure 6 Lipids Fat globules are emulsified by...

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Proteins Protein digestion begins in the stomach. Pepsin and HCl begin liquefying the ingested food. The resultant chyme is released into the duodenum and the HCO 3 - in the pancreatic juice neutralizes the acid. Trypsin and chymotrypsin continue chemically digesting proteins into short oligopeptides . Peptidases break the oligopeptides into single amino acids, which can then be absorbed into the intestinal cells. Absorption of amino acids into intestinal epithelial cells occurs by secondary active transport. The amino acids are then transported into the blood by primary active transport . ( See Figure 6 ). Some di- and tri-peptides are absorbed by endocytosis and broken down into single amino acids by intracellular enzymes.
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Unformatted text preview: Figure 6 Lipids Fat globules are emulsified by bile acids and lecithin in the duodenum. Emulsification increases the solubility of the lipids in water and enables the lipases to efficiently hydrolyze the triglycerides into free fatty acids and monoglycerides . These are absorbed into the intestinal epithelial cells by simple diffusion and into lacteals by exocytosis . ( See Figure 7 ). Figure 7 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are hydrolyzed by nucleases ; chemical digestion continues with the action of brush border nucleosidases and phosphatases , which split nucleotides into phosphate ions, ribose or deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous bases . These are absorbed by a variety of methods....
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