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Regulation of Blood Pressure and Flow

Regulation of Blood Pressure and Flow - Angiogenesis is the...

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Regulation of Blood Pressure and Flow The control of blood pressure and blood flow can be regulated locally , neuronally , or hormonally . Local Control of Blood Pressure and Flow The most common and often quickest method of regulation is local, where changes in the local environment result in alteration of the perfusion of the tissues. The metabolic theory of autoregulation states that if a tissue is inadequately perfused because it is working, then wastes accumulate, the smooth muscles of the arteries supplying the tissue dilate in response, and perfusion of the tissue increases. The increased blood flow removes the waste products and the artery constricts, decreasing perfusion of the tissue. Other methods of local control include the localized release of vasoactive chemicals, including histamine, nitric oxide, prostaglandins and serotonin. Reactive hyperemia is when a blood supply is cut off and then restored; this results in a temporary over-increase of blood supply to the affected tissues to remove built-up wastes.
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Unformatted text preview: Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels to increase perfusion of tissue. In some cases, angiogenesis is regulated hormonally , but often it is locally controlled. For instance, angiogenesis can occur in well-exercised muscles, around vascular obstructions, or towards malignant tumors. It is usually controlled by local growth factors and inhibitors. Neuronal Control of Blood Pressure and Flow The nervous system can also control blood pressure and blood flow. For instance, in response to sensory or emotional stimuli blood pressure and heart rate often rises. Proprioceptors in the body send signals to the cardiac center of the brain stem to alter blood flow and heart rate before metabolic demands increase. Baroreceptors in the aortic arch and internal carotid arteries send a continuous stream of signals to the cardiac center and chemoreceptors respond to information about blood pH, CO 2 and oxygen levels....
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