The Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System - auditory and visual reflexes...

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The Central Nervous System The Brain The brain is more than the lump of squishy material in our skull. It actually consists of meninges , the cerebrum , which is divided into four cerebral lobes, the brainstem , the midbrain , several ventricles , and the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds each structure. Cranial Meninges The tough outermost meningeal layer is the dura mater . The dura consists of two closely bound layers, an outer periosteal layer that lies directly against the bones of the skull and an inner meningeal layer, that lies close to the arachnoid mater. The arachnoid mater is a filamentous layer between the dura and pia. The pia mater is a thin vascular layer that lies directly on the surface of the brain. Meningitis is an infection of the meningeal layers of the brain. Midbrain The central area of the brain is referred to as the midbrain. It consists of several structures for
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Unformatted text preview: auditory and visual reflexes as well as the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus receives nearly all sensory information on its way to the cerebral cortex, except for olfactory information. Sensory information from the nose makes a direct connection in the limbic system of the temporal lobe and is one of the most primordial of senses. The thalamus integrates and directs incoming sensory information to the appropriate area of the brain. The hypothalamus is located just inferior to the thalamus and has a myriad of functions. It regulates hormone secretion and pituitary gland function; it is involved in thermoregulation , hunger, thirst and satiety ; it helps regulate the body's sleep cycles; and it also has functions in memory and emotional behavior....
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