The Macromolecules

The Macromolecules - cellulose is a polysaccharide found in...

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The Macromolecules The four major biological macromolecules are carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Each of these serve important functions in the cells of our bodies. Carbohydrates The carbohydrates, as their name suggests, are composed of carbon and water (oxygen and hydrogen). The general formula is (CH 2 O) n , where n = number of carbon atoms in the carbohydrate. The most familiar carbohydrate in our bodies is glucose . The basic unit of a carbohydrate is a saccharide. Those carbohydrates that contain one saccharide are called mono saccharides, while di saccharides contain two monomers . The most well-known disaccharide is probably sucrose . Poly saccharides serve an important function in both plants and animals. Amylose is a storage form of the monosaccharide glucose that is found in plants cells while
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Unformatted text preview: cellulose is a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. Both of these are collectively called starches . Animals store glucose as well, but in a different form known as glycogen . Glycogen is most often found in the liver and skeletal muscles. Carbohydrates perform many functions in cells. They provide energy to make ATP , they are found in the cellular membrane and outside the cell , they store energy as polysaccharides, they make up mucus and synovial fluids, and serve as attachment and recognition markers for other cells. Lipids Unlike the previous macromolecules, lipids are hydrophobic . Lipids are a source of energy and energy storage for the body, but also are the primary component of cellular membranes and can serve as signaling molecules for communication....
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2012 for the course BSC BSC1085 taught by Professor Sharonsimpson during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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