The Urinary System

The Urinary System - wastes These include urea uric acid...

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The Urinary System Along with the digestive, integumentary and respiratory systems, the urinary system is an excretory system . The respiratory system eliminates CO 2 ; the integumentary system removes water, salts, lactic acid, and urea through sweat; and the digestive system defecates water, salts, CO 2 , lipids, bile pigments , and cholesterol. Most metabolic wastes are removed through the urinary system, as well as toxins, drugs, hormones, salts, H + and water. Thus, the function of the urinary system is to filter the plasma of the blood to eliminate wastes from the body. Kidney The kidneys are the urine producing organs, but they have several other important functions. The process of urine formation involves filtration of the blood plasma, elimination of wastes, and reabsorption of useful substances. The primary waste products are nitrogenous
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Unformatted text preview: wastes. These include urea, uric acid and creatinine. Urea results from the catabolism of proteins and amino acids. The removal of the NH 2 from amino acids forms ammonia which the liver converts to urea for removal by the kidneys. In contrast, uric acid is the byproduct of nucleic acid catabolism. Creatinine results from creatine phosphate catabolism. In addition to removal of wastes, the kidneys also regulate blood volume , osmolarity and pressure , produce hormones , and regulate the acid/base balance of the blood. Internal Anatomy The outer 1 cm of the kidney is the renal cortex while the inner portion is the renal medulla. The renal medulla is subdivided into pyramids and renal columns . A lobe of the kidney consists of a renal pyramid and its overlying cortex and contains the nephrons ....
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