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Types of Neurotransmitters

Types of Neurotransmitters - presynaptic neuron must be...

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Types of Neurotransmitters There are 100s of different types of neurotransmitters. They may be amino acids, nucleotides, lipids, proteins, and even gases. The most common types of NTs are derived from amino acids . The amino acid neurotransmitters include glycine, glutamate and gamma-amino-butyric acid . The monoamine NTs are modified amino acids. The monoamines include epinephrine , norepinephrine , dopamine and serotonin. Acetylcholine is a class by itself, since it is made by the combining of acetic acid and choline. Some NTs are neuropeptides which act as neuromodulators . These chemicals are also stored in the the axon terminal in larger secretory vesicles . These neuropeptides act at lower concentrations than NTs, but they usually have longer lasting effects. They often modify the actions of neurotransmitters that are released from the same neuron. Neurotransmitter Inactivation In order for the postsynaptic neuron to respond to repeated stimulation, the NT released by the
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Unformatted text preview: presynaptic neuron must be removed from the synaptic cleft. There are three major ways for the NT to be removed from the cleft. 1) The NT diffuses away from the synapse itself. 2) The NT is enzymatically degraded by special proteins. A good example of this is the destruction of acetylcholine by acetylcholinesterase in the NMJ. 3) The third (and most common) method of removal of a NT is reuptake . This removes NT from the synaptic cleft into the presynaptic cell via special NT-transporters . Once inside the cell, the NTs may be recycled and put into new synaptic vesicles or they may be destroyed within cell. Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that destroys the monoamine NTs . Many antidepressant drugs target either the NT-transporters (increasing the amount of NT in the cleft) or the MAO inside the cell (increasing the amount of NT available for packaging into synaptic vesicles.)...
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