NR 508 NR508 Advanced Pathophysiology- Endocrine Study guide..docx - NR 508 | NR508 Advanced Study guide Hormone function ligands that bind to their

NR 508 NR508 Advanced Pathophysiology- Endocrine Study guide..docx

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NR 508 | NR508 Advanced Pathophysiology- Endocrine Study guide.Hormone function- ligands that bind to their respective intra- or extracellular receptors.Hormone secretion-Regulated through a negative feedback system.-When target cell response is achieved, feedback signals the hormone to decrease its output.Water- Soluble Hormones- Catecholamines and Peptides-Free molecules- The only hormones that are circulating free are available for binding with receptors. - Active-form: Free circulating available to exert an effect. --Faster in moving - Plasma 1/2 life correlates directly to the % of protein bindingLipid- Soluble Hormones- Steroids, thyroid hormones- Bound to plasma proteins.Major sites of hormone degradation and excretionliver and kidneysNegative FeedbackDECREASE subsequent synthesis DECREASE secretion of hormoneDecrease in maximal responsiveness of hormoneMay be due to:- A decrease in # functional target cells - A decrease in # of receptor cells. - Limited concentration of an enzyme - Increase concentration of noncompetitive inhibitor
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Decrease in hormonal sensitivityMay be due to:-Decrease in # of hormone receptors -Alteration in concentration of modulating co-factors - Increase rate of hormone degradation - Increase concentration of antagonist hormones.Up-regulationlow hormone concentration induces the formation of more receptors per cellDown-regulationPromotes a DECREASE in the # of receptors per cellPrimary endocrine disorder-Alternation of the target gland/tissue example: Thyroid -Secretion of hormones that regulate cellular activity.Secondary endocrine disorder-Alternation in the influencing tropic gland/ts example: pituitaryTertiary endocrine disorder- Can be considered secondary- hypothalmic dysfunction- Target gland responses - Physiological responses in cellsNormal endocrine physiologyCNS-> Hypothalamus-> releasing hormone->pituitary->tropic hormone->peripheral gland-> hormone-> target-> effectGrowth Hormone (Normal Functions)Growth-promoting:-Increase linear growth and cartilage-Increase lean ms mass Anti-insulin effects:
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- Decrease adipose ts- Increase blood glucose--Functions throughout lifeGrowth Hormone (secretion)- anterior pituitary- secretion medicated through adenylyl cyclase system - WATER soluble - Somatotropin- indirect effects: formation of somatomedins (IGF)- IGF-1 (Somatomedin) *Growth Hormone (regulation)-secreted in a pulsatile pattern in response to --starvation (protein deficiency) *--GHRH from hypothalamus - inhibited by--GHIH (somatostatin) from hypothalamus --increased blood glucose -- Exogenous GHAlternations in Growth HormoneDeficiency:-Dwarfism (child)Excess: - Gigantism (child)- Acromegly (adult)--increase IGF-1--hypoglycemiaThyroid Hormone (secretion)-Triiodothyronine (T3) 10%-Tetraiodothyronine (T4) (Thyroxine) 90%(T4 converts to T3)---Iodine required for
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synthesis -LIPID soluble-bound to plasma proteinThyroid Hormone (function)-Increase metabolism and protein synthesis -controlled by negative feedbackThyroid Hormone (Regulation)Hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary with TSH in response to:- cold-stress
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