Lecture 12 Motivation - Motivation vigor and persistence of...

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Motivation: vigor and persistence of goal directed behavior, helps move us towards our goals Evolutionary Theory: motivation plays a significant role in adaptation; social need to affiliate, share resources, provide protection, procreation
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Biological Needs/Motivations Homeostasis: tendency for the body (person) to want to maintain a state of constancy Hunger/Food: energy is necessary for maintenance and growth. Search for a balanced diet
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Hypothalamus: primary structure of the brain which signals hunger and satiation (fullness) Lateral (near side): turns hunger “on.” Stimulation yields increased eating. A lesion or damage can cause starvation Lesion lateral is lean Ventromedial (lower, middle) is the hunger “off.” Stimulation stops eating. Lesion or damage can cause voracious eating. Ventromedial is volumptious
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Various Factors which Impact Eating Behaviors Biological Factors Genetics influence metabolism Bodily sensations: growl, distension Chemical signals to the body Genetic mapping of “obesity genes”
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Social Factors Environmental influences on eating behaviors Complex and multiply determined Eat more in groups Expectation and memory of meals Palatability Social interactions
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Psychological Factors Thinking about food and what it “means” Learned food habits/preferences Memories associated with food Belief and feelings regarding body image Cultural variations: robust= higher class Food as a “substitute” for love, sex
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Obesity rates currently based on Body Mass index or BMI. An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. CDC 2005-2006 data 33.3% of men and 35.65 of women were obese.
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The CDC* reports that : Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the past 30 years. The percentage of children aged 6–11 years in the United States who were obese increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 20% in 2008. Similarly, the percentage of adolescents aged 12–19 years who were obese increased from 5% to 18% over the same period.
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In 2008, more than one third of children and adolescents were overweight or obese.
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