States of Matter, Solutions, Acids & Bases and pH Lecture Notes

States of Matter, Solutions, Acids & Bases and pH Lecture Notes

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States of Matter, Solutions Biological Chemistry 212 Fall 2011   Lecture 3:  Sept. 14
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Selected Reading Chapter 8, Sections 1-9, 11-13 Chapter 10: Sections 1 - 9
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Concepts: States of Matter Understand molecular nature and energy of changes between solids, liquids and gases Understand relationship of pressure, volume and temperature; ideal gas law Understand the types of intermolecular forces Identify hydrogen bond donors and acceptors Appreciate the special properties of water
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Concepts: Solutions Understand molecular nature and energy of changes between solids, liquids and gases Understand concepts of solvent, solute, solubility and concentration Understand forces between solvent and solute molecules Understand why molecules are soluble or insoluble in certain solvents Understand miscibility and immiscibility Understand ways of expressing Concentration of solutes Understand concepts of semipermeable membranes, osmosis, osmotic pressure Understand the principles of dialysis
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Concepts of Acids and Bases Arrhenius and Brönsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases Distinguish between acids, bases and conjugate acid-base pairs Explain the pH scale in terms of H 3 O+ and OH- concentrations and in terms of acidity and basicity Calculate the pH of a solution when given the H 3 O+ or OH- concentrations Understand neutralization reactions
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List the three main buffer systems in the body and their conjugate acid-base pairs Define a buffer Understand how breathing regulates blood pH – What happens to the body when CO 2 levels are too high/too low?
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States of Matter Note that States of matter (solid, liquid, gas) also referred to as phases Gases, Liquids and Solids differ in the strength of intermolecular forces: gases  (none) < liquids < solids Heat energy (thermal energy or enthalpy, H) increases molecular motion --  raising Temperature
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Temperature of water increases linearly with heat added* Additional heat must be added to release water molecules into gas form *calorie originally defined as heat required to raise Temp. of 1 cm 3  (~1 g) water  by 1˚C 
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Additional heat energy must be added to convert Solids to Liquids and Liquids  to Gases These are "latent" heats of melting/fusion and vaporization/condensation
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Gas Laws Volume is inversely proportional to Pressure (Boyle's Law)  V = c(1/P) V, volume; P, pressure; c, a constant
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Gas Laws Volume is directly proportional to Temperature (Charles's Law)  V = cT V, volume; T, Temperature; c, a constant
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Gas Laws Pressure is directly proportional to Temperature (Gay-Lussac's Law)  P = cT P, Pressure;  T, Temperature;  c, a constant Volume is directly proportional to the amount of gas (in moles) (Avogadro's Law)  P = cn P, Pressure;  n, number of moles;  c, a constant
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2012 for the course BIOCHEM 212 taught by Professor Jeannestuckey during the Fall '11 term at University of Michigan.

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States of Matter, Solutions, Acids &amp; Bases and pH Lecture Notes

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