Lecture 11 Translations & Genomics

Lecture 11 Translations & Genomics - BIOC 212 EXAM...

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BIOC 212 EXAM II LECTURE 6; M, Oct 31st Ruthann Nichols; 2:30-4:30 pm, F, 3340 MSRB 3, office hours; nicholsr@umich.edu Nathan Raynard, GSI, 3-5 pm, Th, 3340 MSRB 3, office hours; nraynard@umich.edu Reading Material, Ch 26, pp. 830-835; Ch 27, pp. 840-845 Lecture Goals Chapter 26 6. How does RNA participate in protein synthesis? Chapter 27 2. What is the working draft of the human genome and its creation? 2. What are the various segments along the length of the DNA in a chromosome? 3. What are mutations and polymorphisms?
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Transcription – synthesis of RNA from DNA Additional information about RNA not presented in the reading material. RNA is modified after transcription. The modifications include: 1) adding a 5’ cap & 2) a poly(A)tail to the precursor mRNA, pre-mRNA, and 3) splicing it to produce a mature mRNA. Exons are the proteins encoding DNA. Introns are the non-coding nucleotides. Newly transcribed RNA contain exons and introns. The mature RNA (made through splicing—occurs after newly synthesized RNA is made; splicing occurs at splicesomes) only have extrons. DNA contains introns and extrons; RNA contains only extrons
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Additional information about RNA not presented in the reading material (cont’d). The 5' cap is a nucleotide analog (analogous or similar). (the red on the left in the diagram) Which nucleotide does the 5’ cap mimic? guanine The 5’ cap is a nucleotide analog placed at the end of pre-mRNA. 5’ capping is vital to creating mature mRNA; it ensures stability of mRNA during translation.
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Additional information about RNA (cont’d). Pre-mRNA is cleaved from the ribosome by an endonuclease at the nucleotide sequence AAUAAA, then poly(A) polymerase adds As to the 3’ end. A poly(A) tail is important for transport, stability, and translation. The nucleotide sequence AAUAAA is known as a poly-A site or signal.
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Additional information about RNA (cont’d). What if there is more than 1 poly-A site? In thyroid an mRNA uses a poly-A signal in exon 4 to produce calcitonin. The same mRNA uses a poly-A signal in exon 6 to produce CGRP in brain.
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RNA complementary to a mRNA or a gene may down regulate gene expression, the process is called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is used in research and has potential for therapy.
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2012 for the course BIOCHEM 212 taught by Professor Jeannestuckey during the Fall '11 term at University of Michigan.

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Lecture 11 Translations & Genomics - BIOC 212 EXAM...

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