Lecture 2 Basic Principles of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 2 Basic Principles of Chemical Reactions -...

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Basic Principles of Chemical  Reactions Biological Chemistry 212 Fall 2011   Lecture 2:  Sept. 12
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Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds Understand different representations of molecules, and how to construct Lewis structures Understand the concept of electronegativity Covalent Bonds and Molecules
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Basic Principles of Chemical Reactions Recognize Redox reactions. Identify substances in a chemical reaction as either oxidized or reduced. Distinguish between an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent. Distinguish an exothermic reaction from an endothermic reaction. Define the equilibrium of a reaction and recognize its equilibrium constant. Understand Free energy, Heat Energy and Entropy Understand the meaning of Activation Energy Explain how factors such as temperature, reactant and product concentrations, and catalysts affect reaction rates Endergonic vs. Exergonic reactions.
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Selected Reading Chapter 5: Sections 1 - 9 Chapter 6 : Sections 1 - 3; 8 - 13 Chapter 7: Sections 1 - 8
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Physical change: Appearance may be altered (e.g., a crystal crushed into powder) Density, temperature, pressure, volume may be altered State or phase (solid, liquid or gas) may be changed Chemical structure and composition unchanged Chemical bonds, oxidation states remain the same Chemical change: Reacting substances changed into new substances Composition and properties altered Chemical structure and/or composition changed Bonds are made and/or broken, oxidation states are changed Physical vs Chemical Change
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Chemical Equations Chemical Reaction: C (s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) Reactants Products Important abbreviations: (s) (g) (l) (aq) Solid Gas Liquid Aqueous Solution Law of Conservation of Mass: Matter is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions
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Balanced Equations Reactant Atoms = Product Atoms CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O methane oxygen carbon dioxide water Write the proper chemical formulas for reactants and products Determine if equation is balanced Balance equation one atom at a time (polyatomic ions should be balanced as a group if present) Steps for balancing equations:
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CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + 2 (H 2 O) 1C, 4H, 2O 1C, 2H, 3O 1C, 4H, 2O 1C, 4H, 4O CH 4 + 2 O 2 CO 2 + 2(H 2 O) 1C, 4H, 4O 1C, 4H, 4O
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Classes of Chemical Reactions Precipitation Reaction: reaction produces an insoluble solid. Two ionic compounds switch partners. Ba Cl 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) Ba SO 4 (s) + 2 Na Cl(aq) Acid-Base Neutralization Reaction: Acid and a Base mixed in specific proportions such that the acidic and basic properties disappear. Reaction where an acid reacts with a base to yield water plus a salt
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2012 for the course BIOCHEM 212 taught by Professor Jeannestuckey during the Fall '11 term at University of Michigan.

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Lecture 2 Basic Principles of Chemical Reactions -...

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