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Lecture 6 - BIOC 212 EXAM II LECTURE 6 M Oct 31st...

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BIOC 212 EXAM II LECTURE 6; M, Oct 31st TRANSLATION & GENOMICS Ruthann Nichols; 2:30-4:30 pm, F, 3340 MSRB 3, office hours; [email protected] Nathan Raynard, GSI, 3-5 pm, Th, 3340 MSRB 3, office hours; [email protected] Reading Material, Ch 26, pp. 830-835; Ch 27, pp. 840-845 Lecture Goals How is RNA processed after transcription? Information which is not in the text book but is presented in this lecture. Chapter 26 6. How does RNA participate in protein synthesis? Chapter 27 2. What is the working draft of the human genome and its creation? 2. What are the various segments along the length of the DNA in a chromosome? 3. What are mutations and polymorphisms?
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Transcription – synthesis of RNA from DNA Additional information about RNA not presented in the reading material. RNA is modified after transcription. The modifications include: 1) adding a 5’ cap & 2) a poly(A)tail to the precursor mRNA, pre-mRNA, and 3) splicing it to produce a mature mRNA.
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Additional information about RNA not presented in the reading material (cont’d). The 5' cap is a nucleotide analog. Which nucleotide does the 5’ cap mimic? The 5’ cap is a nucleotide analog placed at the end of pre-mRNA. 5’ capping is vital to creating mature mRNA; it ensures stability of mRNA during translation.
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Additional information about RNA (cont’d). Pre-mRNA is cleaved from the ribosome by an endonuclease at the nucleotide sequence AAUAAA , then poly(A) polymerase adds As to the 3’ end . A poly(A) tail is important for transport, stability, and translation. The nucleotide sequence AAUAAA is known as a poly-A site or signal .
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Additional information about RNA (cont’d). What if there is more than 1 poly-A site? In thyroid an mRNA uses a poly-A signal in exon 4 to produce calcitonin. The same mRNA uses a poly-A signal in exon 6 to produce CGRP in brain.
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RNA complementary to a mRNA or a gene may down regulate gene expression, the process is called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is used in research and has potential for therapy.
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