chapter 9 psych

chapter 9 psych - Nikita Rao Psychology Chapter 9...

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Nikita Rao Psychology Chapter 9 Motivation sustains, activates and directs behaviour o Motivation: factors that energise, direct or sustain behaviour o Focuses on what produces behaviour o Motivational states are energising o They are directive o They help people persist sin their behaviour until goals are met o Motive differ in strength, depending on internal and external factors o Multiple factors motivate behaviours Need: state of biological or social deficiencies “need theory”: Maslow: need hierarchy: basic survival needs are lowest and personal growth needs are highest priorities People must fulfil their biological needs to feel safe and secure Humanistic psychology: person is in motivation Self- actualisation: state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been attained Arousal: physiological activation. Autonomic responses drive: motivates an organism to satisfy needs; physiological homeostasis: tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium when something is deprived, drive increases proportionally if a behaviour reduces a drive, it becomes a habit incentives: external objects or goals rather than internal drives that motivate behaviours Yerkes-doson law: performance increase with arousal until an optimal point, after which arousal interferes with performance Pleasure principal: Freud; drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain Behaviours promoted with pleasure often promote the animals’ survival and reproduction o Some behaviours are motivated for their own sake Extrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed Intrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with the activity rather than for a purpose Creativity: tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communicating and entertaining ourselves and others; people are motivated to make sense of the world Extrinsic rewards may decrease or undermine intrinsic motivation Extrinsic rewards may decrease it because people feel that they are not doing something for themselves Personal control
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Self-perception theory: people are seldom aware of their specific motives and instead draw inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense When people cannot come up with obvious external explanations for their
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chapter 9 psych - Nikita Rao Psychology Chapter 9...

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