Bio 100 Exam 3 - Class 8 5/26 Circulatory System Blood...

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Class 8: 5/26 Circulatory System Blood vessels Not much difference between artery and vein (except blood flow) Artery: any blood vessel moving from the heart to the body - Red blood (mostly) - AWAY FROM THE HEART Vein: blood vessel that goes to the heart - Blue blood (mostly) - TO THE HEART - In veins, the valve keeps blood flow in one direction Blood is red because it has absorbed oxygen Reaction between hemoglobin and oxygen With no oxygen, blood is blue Capillary: small tubules; where oxygen and nutrients are transported back and forth - High concentrations of capillaries (in places with large amounts of blood): o Intestines (digestive tract) – so it can pick up the nutrients o Brain – large blood supply - Capillary beds Cardiovascular system of a fish - 2–chambered hearts (more complex animals have 4-chambered hearts) Cardiovascular system of a mammal - Blood in the right atrium, and then goes through the valves into the right ventricle, which squeezes and pushes the blood into the lungs - Then blood gets reoxygenated, and gets sent back - The vessel that sends blood from the heart to the lungs is an artery (because it goes AWAY FROM HEART, even though its blue) o Called the pulmonary artery - Vessel that sends blood from lung to the heart is called the pulmonary vein , and comes back into the left atrium, and gets squeezed down into the left ventricle - Left side has to be much stronger, since it has to push the blood through the whole body Path of blood flow through the human heart - Going out of the hart - Feeds into the right atrium - Upper vein: superior vena cava – feeds down - Inferior vena cava – feeds up - AV valve – between the atrium and ventriculum
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- From the right atrium into the right ventricle, blood is then pushed out of the right atrium into another set of valves, called the semilunar valve, and into the artery - Separate arteries for the left and the right lungs o Right pulmonary artery and left pulmonary artery - Blood then comes back in through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium, the blood is now oxygenated, and we have the left ventricle squeezing really hard in order to push the blood throughout the body through a huge artery called the aorta o Blood pressure in the aorta is very high Path of blood flow through the cardiovascular system (see diagram) Beating of the heart takes place in less than 1 second 1. Diastole: Heart is relaxed. AV valves are open. a. Blood comes in through the vena cava, blood fills up the left atrium coming in from the lungs so that everything is relaxed and fills with blood 2. Systole: Atria contract. a. Pushes blood into the ventricles, and the blood that’s pushed into the ventricles builds up pressure, as it is compressed into the ventricles 3. Systole (2): Ventricles contract. Semilunar valves are open.
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