English 243 Final Exam Study Guide 2011 (REVISED) - ENGLISH...

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ENGLISH 243 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE, 2011All of the terms below should be familiar to you already. Please note that not all of them will be on the final exam. One way, but not the only way, for you to review the material is to look over the two previous exams.PART ITerms & Definitions (With apologies to Webster’s Dictionary, ThePrinceton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poeticsand The Longman Dictionary of Poetic Termsfor borrowing phrases and concepts.)Alliteration: Most often thought of as pattern of repeated initial consonant soundsAllusion(literary allusion): A reference in a literary work to another literary work, figure of speech, character, or placeAnaphora: from Greek “carrying back”: A rhetorical device in which successivelines, phrases, clauses, or sentences begin with the same word or phraseAnthem: A song or hymn of praise or gladnessAphorism: A terse or concise formulation of a truthApostrophe: from Greek “turning away”: A rhetorical device in which a speaker or writer addresses an absent person, an abstraction, or inanimate objectAssonance: The repetition of vowel soundsAvant Garde: A group that develops new or experimental concepts in the artsBallad: from Latin “dance”: a short narrative songBallad Stanza: A quatrain in which the odd lines have 4 stresses, the even lines 3, and rhymes ABCB or ABAB Caesura: from Latin, “cutting or metrical pause”: A pause or break within a line of poetry, occurring near the beginning, middle, or end of the line. Usually signaled by a punctuation markCarpe Diem: from Latin “pluck the day”: A phrase that comes from the Latin poet Horace and is commonly translated as “seize the day.” A convention of poetry that exhorts someone to live as fully in the present moment as possible. Frequently used as a seduction strategy to urge a woman to give into her desires before she grows too oldChiasmus: from Greek, “placing crosswise”: a repetition of words or phrases in inverted orderChorus: from Greek “dancing”: A stanza of a song that is repeated. Originates in Greek drama as a single or collective voice that intrudes on the action of the play to provide commentary of some kindCommon Meter: Also called Common Measure. The meter of the ballad stanza
Conceit: A trope that conveys a striking or elaborate or extended metaphorConnotation: The associative, metaphoric, or symbolic meaning of a word or imageConsonance: The repetition of consonant soundsConvention: An established technique, style, or device that is commonly agreed upon. Use of the sonnet as a love poem is a convention as is the fact that sonnets contain 14 lines and the love represented is unrequitedCurse: A prayer or invocation for harm or injury to come to someoneDenotation: The literal meaning of a word or imageDiction: Word choice and arrangement, i.e.: abstract, concrete, colloquial, formal

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