AfricanPoliticsPaper

AfricanPoliticsPaper - Arnold Gregory Arnold PSC 2381-10...

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Arnold Gregory Arnold PSC 2381-10 Comparative Politics of Middle and Southern Africa Professor Lambright Tanzania: Same Name, Different Face The late 1980s and early 1990s were a period of unprecedented political change around the world . From the fall of the Soviet Union to the wave of political liberations in the third world, the shackles of tyranny and oppression were, for at least a brief time, thrown off . This trend was especially prevalent in the countries of Africa . In the United Republic of Tanzania, the retirement of longtime post-independence leader Julius Nyerere in 1985 led to political and economic liberalizations for the first time since Tanzania’s unification . However, despite these actions, and the country’s first multiparty elections in 1995, the ruling party, CCM, still won with notable voting irregularities . 1 Similarly, every major election since 1995 has seen the continued victory of CCM . So how did Tanzania’s political liberalization’s fail? The similarities between Tanzania during and post-Nyerere suggest that the importance of the CCM to the structure of the Tanzanian state has made any attempts at reform inevitably linked to the structures of the CCM itself . Tanzania is a country located on the eastern coast of Africa, bordering Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia and Mozambique to the south . Historically, the country was, like most of Africa, occupied by European colonists in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries . However, the space of Tanzania was not united . The mainland colony of Tanganyika was initially colonized by the German Empire 2 , while the offshore islands that make up Zanzibar were later given to the 1 “Tanzania: 1995 Presidential election results.” Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa [on-line]; available from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/tan1995results2.htm ; Internet, accessed on 6 December 2011. 2 Marcia Wright. “The Tanganyika Archives.” American Archivist 28, no. 4 (October 1965): 511-512.
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Arnold British . Following World War I, and Germany’s loss of its colonies, Tanganyika became a Mandate, later a UN Trust Territory, managed by the British, and ultimately granted it independence in 1961, with Zanzibar gaining independence two years later . 3 It’s in the immediate aftermath of the independence of these two colonies and their subsequent unification that the political stage in Tanzania for the following 30 years is set . In Tanganyika, the British government had seen what the struggle for independence had done to neighboring Kenya, and worked to create a more gradual process for Tanganyikan independence . The leading organization in this process was the
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2012 for the course PERS 2001 taught by Professor Naderbolouri during the Fall '11 term at GWU.

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AfricanPoliticsPaper - Arnold Gregory Arnold PSC 2381-10...

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