IAFFFinalPaper

IAFFFinalPaper - Gregory Arnold Shannon Powers 31 I Gregory...

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Gregory Arnold Shannon Powers 31 2/8/2011 “I, Gregory Arnold, affirm that I have completed this assignment in accordance with the Code of Academic Integrity.” X_____________________________X
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With the fall of the Soviet Union, the former republics of the USSR fell victim to economic and societal turbulence. Yet it was only in one republic, Tajikistan, which these tensions led to outright civil war. But why was this so? As Central Asia becomes a haven, and front, for terrorism and the war against it, the causes of state instability in the region become detrimental to nation security. (Rashid 2003) But was the war caused by the individual desires of strongmen who wished to keep or make their own fortunes in the conflict following the fall of the USSR? (Nourzhanov 2005) Or is the war a result of unified ideological fronts that were mutually incompatible and unable to cooperatively govern side by side? (Rashid 2003, Buschkow 1993) The evidence suggests that the war in Tajikistan was birthed and lingered because of the personal charisma and power lust of its various faction leaders. The Tajik Civil War has its roots in the fall of the Soviet Union. In February 1990, rumors about Armenian refugees from the Caucasus being given preferential treatment led to massive riots, which led to government-led reprisals killing 21. (Laber 1991: 22-24) Although these protests failed, they ultimately showed the weakness of Soviet governance in the region. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Tadzhik SSR declared itself the Republic of Tajikistan. However, instability would continue to follow the new state into independence. The post- independence president, Rahmon Nabiev, ultimately failed to maintain the order and strategies of the Soviet-era government. As a result, by May of 1992, the government in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan, no longer held complete control of the country, as individuals from the Leninabad, Kulob, and Qurghonteppa regions, which were either traditionally dominant areas from Soviet times or inhabited by the non-Tajik Uzbek minority, located in the west and north, rejected the authority of the Gharm and Badakshshan-dominated governments. (Nourzhanov 2005: 111)
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Fighting would occur intermittently between the summer of 1992 and June 26, 1997. While the war lacked really concrete sides, two broad alliances developed. The first was the Tajik government, led by Emomali Rahmonev, which included a coalition of forces primarily from the traditionally dominant Leninabad and Kulob regions, backed by forces from the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. This was opposed by the United Tajik Opposition, or the UTO, which consisted of groups as varied as Islamists, like the Islamic Renaissance Party (IRP), nationalists, like the Pamiri-nationalist Lali Badakhshan , and liberal democrats, backed by Iran and Islamist groups from Afghanistan and Pakistan. (Rashid 104) Ultimately, the war was marked by sporadic conflict whereby warlords controlled local patches of territory and launched
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2012 for the course IAFF 1005 taught by Professor Henrynau during the Spring '11 term at GWU.

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IAFFFinalPaper - Gregory Arnold Shannon Powers 31 I Gregory...

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