Nuclear_Electronics - Introduction to Nuclear Electronics...

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1 Introduction to Nuclear Electronics The first lab of the quarter is designed to introduce you to some of the electronic equipment used in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Electronics used in such experiments are mainly designed to process fast pulses that originate in particle detectors. There can be voltage or current pulses typically no more than a few hundred nanoseconds in duration. These are often referred to as “fast pulses”. Because these pulses are very short in duration, one must exercise special care in setting up the electronics to process, transmit and receive them. In addition to choosing the appropriate electronic logic boxes (like discriminators and amplifiers), the experimenter needs to pay particular attention to cable lengths, cable types, and any interconnecting components that are used. The subfield of electronics that specializes in this type of equipment goes by the name “nuclear electronics”. Some exercises are to be done after the data is taken. You need to include answers to these in your lab report. Equipment In this first lab you will use the following equipment: 1. Tektronix analog oscilloscope (figure 1). Fig. 1. Tektronix analog oscilloscope showing a spectrum of fast pulses. 2. Coaxial cables, terminating resistors and attenuators (fig. 2a). A small box (fig. 2b) with a BNC connector input that has a toggle switch, which makes it possible to switch the input between shorted to ground (zero impedance), open-ended (infinite impedance) or a variable resistance (0-500 ohms).
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2 Fig. 2a. A long coaxial cable with BNC connectors at each end. Fig. 2b. Variable resistance box with a BNC connector. 3. NIM (Nuclear Instrument Module) “bins” with discriminator and logic units. (See W.R. Leo, Chapter 12). Figure 3 NIM bin with three NIM units. From left to right: BNC 8010 pulse generator, LeCroy 365AL 4-fold logic unit, LeCroy 821 quad discriminator. 4. A digital multimeter. Figure 4 Digital Multimeter 5. Units called “pulse generators” that generate short voltage pulses of tunable peak voltage, time duration and frequency.
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3 Each experimental station contains a rack in which a NIM power bin is installed. NIM units are located on a tilted shelf on a nearby table. Connectors, adapters and terminating resistors are located in a small drawer cabinet. Each station also has a few long loops of cable with BNC connectors at each end. One of these cables is a “mystery” cable whose characteristic impedance you are to determine. The other cables are type RG58 (50 ). A cable rack behind the movable chalkboard contains additional 50 coaxial cables that you may use as needed. At the end of the day please return everything where it was found. Two types of pulse generators are available. Three are “BNC 8010” units that mount in a
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Nuclear_Electronics - Introduction to Nuclear Electronics...

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