Bio171-F08-Lec%204

Bio171-F08-Lec%204 - Lecture 4: Organism/Environment...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 4: Organism/Environment Interactions Biology 171 Wednesday September 10, 2008 Physiology & Respiration Scaling Effects of Respiration Role of Hemoglobin Respiration in Water vs. Air Comparative Respiration: Fishes, Mammals, Birds Insects Todays Topics: Announcements This Week in Discussion: Synthetic Life Text Reading Lecture 4 : 2 nd ed: Chapters 41 (941-947), 44 (999-1015) 3 rd ed: Chapters 41 (921-926), 44 (978-997) Lecture 5: 2 nd ed: Chapter 50 (1146-1163) 3 rd ed: Chapter 50 (1127-1146) A living entity. acquires energy and material from its surroundings Organismal Ecology Physiology : mechanical, physical and biochemical functions of living organisms. Performing these functions requires energy obtained from food by respiration : cellular respiration and physiological respiration. Plants Light Energy Chemical Energy Work & Heat Respiration unlocks the energy stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules and puts it to work physiologically Glucose An energy-rich organic molecule produced by plants Energy-rich molecules such as glucose cannot be directly used for life processes The energy must be converted into a readily usable chemical form (ATP) by the process of Cellular Respiration . Occurs in a highly regulated form in mitochondria. Requires O 2 Adenosine Triphosphate ATP) powers almost all cellular functions Cartoon of Motor Protein Movement; requires binding of ATP and cleaving one of its 3 phosphates; released energy powers the movement Example: ATP-fueled molecular motor proteins In vitro vesicle movement generated by molecular motor proteins. Must add ATP to generate movement; adding Glucose will not work. Physiological Respiration is the process by which multicellular organisms capture and excrete the gaseous fuel (O 2 ) and waste (CO 2 ) of cellular respiration Cellular Respiration requires a steady supply of O 2 Glucose + 6 O 2 > 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O Cells must have a constant uninterrupted supply of Oxygen and be able to remove CO 2 No O 2 = No ATP = Rapid Cellular and Organismal Death. Gas Exchange from external environment to mitochondria is solely driven by diffusion down concentration gradients ; there is no active transport of respiratory gases across cell membranes. Ficks Law of Diffusion Fig. 44-5 Fig....
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Bio171-F08-Lec%204 - Lecture 4: Organism/Environment...

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