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Bio171-F08-lec31 - Biology 171 Lecture 31 Friday Todays...

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Lecture 31: Friday November 14, 2008 Biology 171 Today’s Topic: Colonization of Land Announcements Next week’s discussion: Ant-fungal coevolution Exam III, Monday, November 17 Covers Lectures 20-29 Review Sunday Nov. 16th 4-6pm Room: 1800 Chem Text Reading Lec 32: 2 nd ed: Chapter 33 (752-772) 3 rd ed: Chapter 34 (753-762) Lec 33: 2 nd ed: Chapter 29 (637-671) 3 rd ed: Chapter 30 (626-661) Overview of Vertebrate Evolution Lobe-finned & Air-breathing Fishes The non-marine Devonian environment Fins into limbs: origin of Tetrapods Early Amphibians Origin of Amniote Development Evolution of Mammalian Reproduction
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Deuterostomes contain two very distinct major lineages: Echinoderms (strictly marine) and Chordates
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A Cambrian seascape. This artist s reconstruction depicts a diverse array of organisms represented in fossils from the Burgess Shale site in British Columbia, Canada.
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Phylogenetic tree based on morphology and DNA of Living Vertebrates ( Figure 34.7 ). It is in agreement with Fossil Data.
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The earliest vertebrates lived in the ocean about 530 million years ago and had endoskeletons made of cartilage —a stiff tissue that consists of scattered cells in a gel-like matrix of polysaccharides and protein fibers. Jawless fossil vertebrates (now extinct) from 480 million years ago were the first fossils to contain bone in the form of an exoskeleton enveloping the body.
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Vertebrates could not harvest food by biting until jaws evolved. Jaw evolved from anterior gill arches. ( Figure 34.10 ).
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Jaws were a big hit - almost all living vertebrates have them!
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Relative Species Abundance Among Vertebrates (Lobe-finned Fishes not Shown) Ray-finned fishes Their fins are webs of skin supported by bony spines ("rays").
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Lobe-Finned Fishes - very common in the fossil record (see Devonian example below on right). Their fleshy fins share homologous bones and muscles with tetrapods. Only a few living species - 2 marine (Coelacanth), 3 freshwater (lung fishes)
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Lungfishes Have gills and lungs!
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Lungfish can survive in anoxic water and can also survive the drying out of lakes rivers and ponds by burrowing in the mud and breathing air.
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