Bio171-F08-lec32 - Lecture 32: Monday November 17, 2008...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 32: Monday November 17, 2008 Biology 171 Todays Topic: Terrestrial Diversification: Plants & Insects Announcements Discussion This Week: Ant-fungal coevolution Exam III, Tonight, 6-8PM Covers Lectures 20-29 Text Reading Lec 32: 2 nd ed: Chapter 29 (637-671) 3 rd ed: Chapter 30 (626-661) Lec 33: 2 nd ed: Chapter 26 (559-561); Ch. 33 (760-1) 3 rd ed: Chapter 27 (546-548); Ch. 34 (748-749) Overview of Land Plant Diversity Fossil Record Terrestrial Adaptations Evolution of Angiosperms (Flowers & Fruit); Pollination Insect Pollinator & Angiosperm Coevolution - some examples of this epic diversity Red Alga Green Alga Land Plant All Land Plants Belong to a Single Lineage Key Steps in Becoming Terrestrial: (1) preventing water loss from cells, and (2) transporting water from tissues with access to water to tissues without access. Most Green Algae are aquatic Preventing Water Loss: Cuticle and Stomata Cuticle is a waxy, watertight sealant that gives plants the ability to survive in dry environments. Gas exchange is accomplished by stomata , which have a pore that opens and closes ( Figure 30.10 ). Liverworts, hornworts and mosses lack vascular tissue specialized groups of cells (xylem & phloem) that conduct water or dissolved nutrients from one part of the plant body to another. These typically thrive only in wet/shady environments and do not do well in direct sunlight. Mosses are the most tolerant of desiccation. In vascular plants, vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem. These two types of vessels run side-by-side, extending from roots to leaves. They provide channels for the transport of water (xylem) and nutrients (phloem). Vascular bundles are evident in this celery stalk section Horsetails, ferns, lycophytes, and whisk ferns are the major groups of seedless vascular plants. A seed is a structure that encloses and protects a developing embryo. Seeds are often attached to a structure that aids in dispersal by wind, water, or animals ( Figure 30.20. ). The Evolution of the Seed Seed plants have vascular tissue and make seeds. There are five major lineages in the group: cycads, ginkgoes, redwoods & relatives, gnetophytes, pines & relatives, and angiosperms. The gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes, and conifers have been collectively known as gymnosperms , because their seeds do not develop in an enclosed structure. In the flowering plants , or angiosperms , seeds develop inside a protective structure called a carpel (3 parts: ovary, style & stigma) Silurian-Devonian Explosion...
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Bio171-F08-lec32 - Lecture 32: Monday November 17, 2008...

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