Bio171-F08-lec34 - Biology 171 Lecture 34 Friday Todays...

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Lecture 34: Friday November 21, 2008 Biology 171 Today’s Topic: Evolution of Humans Announcements Next Week in Discussion: No discussion after Tues. No class Wed. Nov 26 Text Reading Lec 34: 2 nd ed: Chapter 25 (553); Ch 26 (566-567); Ch 33 (773-778) 3 rd ed: Chapter 34 (762-767) Lec 35: 2 nd ed: Chapter 22 (469-489) 3 rd ed: Chapter 21 (434-448) Primates & Hominids Low Human Genetic Diversity - Why? Australopithicus Paranthtopus Homo - habilis/erectus/floresiensis Neanderthals & Us Our Recent African Origins
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Placement in the Tree of Life?
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Placement in the Metazoan Branch?
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Placement in the Vertebrate Branch?
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Placement in the Mammalian Branch?
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Order Primates (233 species) 5 grasping fingers on all 4 limbs mostly flat nails (not claws) primarily arboreal forward-pointing eyes & binocular vision Mostly South America, Africa, Madagascar & Asia Mouse Lemur, Madagascar
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Placement in the Primate Branch?
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HDxA8-01cp4 Our Closest Living Relatives
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Recognition of species in natural populations can be enormously complicated because a large fraction of the biota is are currently engaged in splitting events, involving closely related lineages which are in the process of speciating (irrespective of the definition used) and exhibit various degrees of definition. This is difficult for humans to understand as we consider ourselves to be a clearly distinct species and this colors our perception of natural variation for the rest of the Metazoa. Are we really that distinct?
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Hominid (Great Apes + Humans) Gene Tree (Orangutans are the outgroup) Why are modern humans represented by a twig on this tree and are so much less diverse than our closest living relatives?
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Human Evolution Anagenesis; A common misconception Cladogenesis
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+ Neanderthal mt sequence What if we could add sequences from all extinct humans?
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