Bio171-F08-lec39 - Biology 171 Lecture 39: Monday December...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology 171 Lecture 39: Monday December 8, 2008 Today’s Topic: Looking to the Future Biodiversity
and
Conservation
 Why
is
Biodiversity
important?
 Threats
to
Biodiversity
‐
review
 Hopeful
signs:
 


National
efforts
in
conservation
 


Vahatra
‐
Madagascar
 


Health
in
Harmony
–
Indonesia
 


Discover
Life
in
America
 Text Reading Lec.
39:
review
chapter
55

 Announcements Course Evaluations online Final Exam Tues. Dec 16 7-9PM – covers lectures 30-39 & last 3 discussions Review Sun. Dec 14 4-6PM - 1800 Chem Why
is
Biodiversity
important?
 1.
Ecosystem
services,
e.g.
primary
production,
nutrient
cycling
 David
Tilman
(UM
Ph.D.)
 tested
whether
increasing
 species
richness
and
functional
diversity
in
a
community
would
affect
net
primary
 productivity
in
Minnesota
prairies.
 Why
is
Biodiversity
important?
 Tilman’s

 experiments
 Fig.
55.14
 Why
is
Biodiversity
important?
 2.
Resistance
to
disturbance
and
 Resilience
following
disturbance
 Tilman’s
group
also
found
that
more
diverse
 communities
showed
greater
values
of
these
 parameters.
 Why
is
Biodiversity
important?
 3.
Economic
benefits
 Wild
plants,
fungi,
prokaryotes
and
 
animals
have
been
the
sources
of
a
 
vast
diversity
of
valuable
products.
 e.g. the anti-cancer drug Taxol derived from the yew tree, Taxus canadensis Why
is
Biodiversity
important?
 Tilman’s
experiments
showed
that

 there
is
some
redundancy
in
 natural
communities,
but
how

 much
disturbance
and
extinction
 before
a
tipping
point
is
reached?
 Threats
to
Biodiversity
 “Governments
should
protect
the
climate
system
for
the
benefit
of
present
 
and
future
generations
of
humankind”
 ‐UN
Conference
on
Environment
and
Development
‐
Rio
de
Janiero,
1992
 (The
“Earth
Summit ”)
 The
last
10
years
have
been
the
warmest
decade
since
written
records
began
 Floods
on
Indian
subcontinent
 Desertification
in
Africa
 If
nothing
continues
to
be
done,
the
UN
Intergovernmental
 Panel
on
Climate
Change
warns
that
temperatures
could
rise
by
 a
global
average
of
5.8°C
(10.4°F)
by
2100
 Glacier
National
Park
‐
1932
 2001
 By
2002,
CO2
emissions
had
risen
18.1%
above
1990
levels
in
US 
 Atmospheric
CO2
levels
are
 30%
higher
than
in
pre‐industrial
 times,
rising
from
281ppmv
in
1800
 to
327
in
1972,
356
in
1992,
367
in
2002
 And
384
in
2007.
 

 Threats
to
Biodiversity
 “National
policies
and
strategies
should
provide
a
framework
for
increased
 efforts…for
the
management,
conservation
and
sustainable
development
of
 forests
and
forest
lands.”
 ‐UN
Conference
on
Environment
and
Development
‐
Rio
de
Janiero,
1992
 Half
of
the
world’s
original
forest
cover
has
now
been
destroyed
‐
 60%
of
temperate
broadleaf
&
mixed
forests,
45%
of
tropical
 moist
forest
&
70%
of
tropical
dry
forest
 Lake
Balinsasayao,
central
Philippines,
1982
 Remaining
forests
are
being
depleted
by
about
160,000km2
 ‐half
the
size
of
Norway‐
every
year. 
 

 Satellite
image
of

 Madagascar,

 June
4,
2003
 Red
spots
are
fires
 visible
from
space
 Remaining
forests
are
being
depleted
by
about
160,000km2
 ‐half
the
size
of
Norway‐
every
year. 
 

 Illegal
logging
in
 Gunung
Palung
 National
Park,
 Indonesia
 Illegal
logging
in
 Gunung
Palung
 National
Park,
 Indonesia
 80%
of
plywood
imported
into
USA
 comes
from
Indonesia
 11
countries
have
lost
their
forests
completely
 Aerial
photo
of
Ilopango
lake,
 El
Salvador
 Threats
to
Biodiversity
 “ The
holistic
management
of
freshwater
as
a
finite
and
vulnerable
resource
 …[is]
of
paramount
importance
for
action
in
the
1990’s
and
beyond.”
 ‐UN
Conference
on
Environment
and
Development
‐
Rio
de
Janiero,
1992
 There
has
been
a
175%
increase
over
the
last
30
years
in

 global
freshwater
withdrawals
by
agriculture
(which
is

 responsible
for
70%
of
global
freshwater
consumption).
 By
2025,
the
demand
for
fresh
water
is
expected
to
rise
by
56%
 more
than
is
currently
available,
causing
two
in
every
three
 people
on
the
planet
to
face
water
scarcity
 In
Arizona,
ground
water
 is
removed
at
a
rate
that
 is
300
times
the
rate
of
 replenishment.
 Arizona
has
the
highest
 per
capita
number
of
 golf
courses
&
swimming
 pools.
 In
2002,
water
shortages
killed
over
7
million
people
 Threats
to
Biodiversity
 Land degradation Veracruz,
Mexico
‐
1985
 “Land
degradation
is
the
most
important
problem
affecting
extensive
 areas
of
land
in
both
developed
and
developing
countries.”
 ‐UN
Conference
on
Environment
and
Development
‐
Rio
de
Janiero,
1992
 Globally,
each
year,
there
continues
to
be
a
net
loss
of
26

 billion
tons
of
soil
from
erosion
 Remnant
forest
in
Madagascar
 Erosion
follows
 deforestation
 An
estimated
552
million
hectares,
or
38%
of
current
global
 cultivated
area,
have
been
degraded
by
unsustainable
 agricultural
practices
between
1945
and
1990.
 Worldwide,
government
subsidies
for
 industrial
forms
of
agriculture
amount
 to
more
than
$313
billion
each
year.
 Support
for
soil
conserving
forms
of
 agriculture
accounts
for
only
2%
of
 the
total
agricultural
budgets
in
 industrialized
countries.
 Threats
to
Biodiversity
 Overharvesting Fisheries
such
as
the
Atlantic
 cod,
haddock,
capelin,
and
Atlantic
 herring
have
either
collapsed
or
 are
harvested
at
unsustainable
levels
 abundance
 Bluefin
tuna,
now
highly
endangered
 Threats
to
Biodiversity
 “ The
discharge
of
toxic
substances…in
such
quantities
as
to
exceed
the
 capacity
of
the
environment
to
make
them
harmless,
must
be
halted
in
order
 to
ensure
that
serious
or
irreversible
damage
is
not
inflicted
upon
ecosystems”
 ‐UN
Conference
on
the
Human
Environment
‐
Stockholm,
1972
 Global
sales
of
chemicals
have
increased
almost
ninefold
since
1970;
from
 $171
billion
in
1970
to
almost
$1.5
trillion
in
1998.
 Pesticides
have
become
 between
10
and
100
times
 more
toxic
than
in
the
mid
1970’s,
 resulting
in
3.5‐5
million
 acute
poisonings
per
year
 5.5
quadrillion
(5.5
x
1015)
plastic
pellets
(250
billion
lbs)
are

 produced
each
year.
 In
the
North
Pacific
subtropical
 gyre,
there
are
6kg
of
floating
plastic
 for
every
kg
of
zooplankton.
 Laysan
albatross
carcass
 with
plastic‐filled
gut
 From
C.
Moore.
2003.
Trashed;
Across
the

 Pacific
Ocean,
plastics,
plastics,
everywhere.
 Natural
History,
Nov.
2003.
 The
United
States
throws
awayenough
aluminum
to
 replace
its
entire
commercial
aircraft
fleet
every
three
 months. 

 Toronto’s
trash
in
Waltz,
MI
 1000
tons/day,
driven
350
miles
 Beautiful
downtown
Toronto
 In
2003,
9.3
million
cubic
yards
 of
Canadian
trash
dumped
in
 Michigan.
This
is
scheduled
to
end
 By
2010.
 Threats
to
Biodiversity
 Overpopulation Thomas
Malthus
‐
1798
 “Essay
on
the
Principle
of
Population”
 Food
 supply
 Overpopulation -when n=K… War
 Famine
 Plague

 Death
 Albrecht
Dürer
(1497)

 “Four
Horsemen
of
the
Apocalypse”
 War
=
competition
for
resources
 Darfur
province,
Sudan,
2008
 Iraq,
2008
 Albrecht
Dürer
(1497)

 “Four
Horsemen
of
the
Apocalypse”
 Famine
=
population
exceeds
K
 Zimbabwe,
2008
 Sudan,
2004
 Albrecht
Dürer
(1497)

 “Four
Horsemen
of
the
Apocalypse”
 Plague
=
parasites
as
selective
 
 




pressures
 HIV
 Vibrio
cholerae
 Influenza
 Plasmodium
 falciparum
 Albrecht
Dürer
(1497)

 “Four
Horsemen
of
the
Apocalypse”
 Death
=
effect
of
selective
pressures
 Funeral
for
 AIDS
victim
 Victims
of
 genocide
in
 Rwanda
 Albrecht
Dürer
(1497)

 “Four
Horsemen
of
the
Apocalypse”
 The
Good
News
‐
Nature
is
Resilient
‐
If
We
Give
It
a
Chance
 Korea's DMZ a rare chance for conservation The D MZ (Demilitarized Zone), a precious strip of land about 2.5 miles wide and extending 155 miles acros s the width of the Korean Peninsula, has been untouched by man s ince 1953 when a buffer zone was established between the two Koreas after the Korean War . The DMZ has remained almost untouched by humans due to land mines within, and the barbed wire around it. As a result, the DMZ has become a haven for hundreds of plant and animal species no longer existing elsewhere on the Korean peninsula. The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) has reported that preliminary surveys show the DMZ supports amur leopards, Asiatic black bears, and possibly the last remaining population of tigers in Korea. It also provides wintering grounds for two of the world's most endangered bird species, the white-naped crane and red crowned cran e . Some
Countries
are
Leaders
in
 Proactive
Conservation
 While much of Costa Rica has been stripped of its forests, the country has managed to protect a larger proportion of its land than any other country in the world. 10% is fully protected, an additional 17% is legally set aside as forest reserves, "buffer zones," wildlife refuges, and native American reserves. Throughout the country representative sections of all the major habitats and ecosystems are protected. The National Conservation Areas System protects more than 186 areas, including national parks, eight biological reserves, 13 forest reserves, and 51 wildlife refuges. Madagascar has only about 4% of its original vegetation cover. A number of sensitive areas have been put under protection, with connections between some to allow genetic interchange. President
Marc
 Ravalomanana
 Steven
M.
Goodman
 Field
Ecologist,
Field
Museum
of
 Natural
History:
The
island
of
 Madagascar
fascinates
the
public
and
 biologists
alike
with
its
extraordinary
 numbers
of
unique
species.
In
1989,
 Steve
Goodman
launched
a
survey
of
 the
biodiversity
of
Madagascar
which
 has
yet
to
stop.
This
research
 program
has
spawned
discoveries
of
 hundreds
of
new
species
of
plants
 and
animals,
as
well
as
the
training
 of
over
80
Malagasy
graduate
 students.
The
project
has
recently
 been
turned
over
to
an
NGO,
known
 as
Vahatra
or
"grass‐roots"
in
 Malagasy,
with
a
trust
fund
to
 support
long‐term
conservation
 programs
in
Madagascar. Steven
Goodman
(UM‐BS,
MS),
co‐founder
of
“Vahatra”
conservation
group.
 http://archives.chicagotribune.com/2007/apr/22/magazine/chi‐0704210317apr22

 http://www.healthinharmony.org /index.html
 Health
In
Harmony
is
partnering

 With
Indonesian
International

 Rural
Agricultural
Environmenal
 
Foundation),
a
community

 development
project
in
 Indonesia
that
shares
HIH's
 comprehensive
vision.
This
 project
is
developing
health

 care
facilities
in
West
 Kalimantan,
Indonesia.
 The
health
care
work
is
tightly
 linked
with
conservation

 efforts
to
preserve
Gunung
 Palung
National
Park.
 Antonia
Gorog
(UM
–
Ph.D.)
 Fires
in
southwest
Borneo
 http://www.healthinharmony.org /index.html
 Paul
Super
(UM‐BS)
 Director
of
Science
for
 the
Great
Smoky
Mts.
 National
Park
 http://www.dlia.org
 http://web1.audubon.org /science/species/watchlist/whatYouCanDo.php
 Audubon
is
an
American
Bird
Conservation
Society
and
I
have
downloaded
 their
advice
(below)
to
individual
members
on
how
they
can
each
make
a
difference.
 The
specific
focus
is
on
birds,
but
the
suggestions
have
broad
conservation
application.
 Here are some specific ways you can help: Protect Local Habitat Join local Audubon Chapters and other groups to protect and restore habitats close to home. Audubon offers opportunities to save critical bird habitat, from small land parcels to broad landscapes. Promote Sound Agricultural Policy This has enormous impact on grassland birds and habitat. Promoting strong conservation provisions in the Federal Farm Bill and Conservation Reserve Program can help to protect millions of acres of vital habitat. Support Sustainable Forests The Boreal Forest in the Northern U.S. and Canada is essential breeding territory for many species of birds. Federal and state legislations promoting sustainable forest management will help fight habitat loss from inappropriate logging, mining, and drilling. (Does not mention tropical forests but many North American birds overwinter in the tropics and they are highly relevant) Protect Wetlands Support for local, state and federal wetlands conservation programs is essential to protect a wide array of species. Fight Global Warming Declining birds populations is just one impact of global warming's mounting threat to people and wildlife around the world. Individual energy conservation along with strong federal, state, and local legislation to cap greenhouse emissions can help to curb its worst consequences. Combat Invasive Species Invasive non-native species disrupt the delicate ecological balance that sustains birds and other wildlife. Federal, regional, state, and local regulations are needed to combat this growing environmental threat. It ’s
your
future!
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2012 for the course BIO 171 taught by Professor Josephinekurdziel during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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